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Q1. As a speaker you are addressing a group of people. Explain the elements involved in this communication.
Ans: There are following types of the elements of communication explained below:
- Approach: Timing of communication; choice of medium; tone and point of view (perspective, attitude, and relationship regarding audience, purpose, and material); recognition of audience (reader vs. writer orientation); direct vs. indirect presentation (ordering of evidence and conclusions); persuasive strategies and rhetorical appeals (logos, pathos, ethos)
- Timing and choice of medium are appropriate to the purpose, audience, and material.
- The tone is appropriate to the purpose, audience, and material.
- Material is made relevant to the reader (the reader’s interests and concerns are recognized).
- Development: Organization (logical arrangement and sequence); evidence and support (relevance, specificity, accuracy and sufficiency of detail); knowledge of subject and material; quality of perception, analysis, and insight
- Material is arranged in a logical and coherent sequence.
- Examples are relevant, specific, detailed, sufficient, and persuasive.
- Quotations support the argument.
- Handling of material demonstrates knowledge and insight.
- Clarity: Presentation of thesis or central argument (statement of purpose, delineation or narrowing of topic, relevance of subordinate or secondary arguments); word choice; technical language and jargon; structure (sentence, paragraph, document); coherence devices (organizational statement, repetition of words and phrases, progression from familiar to unfamiliar, topic and transitional sentences); textual markers (headings, highlighting, formatting features)
- Purpose or central idea is sufficiently limited for meaningful discussion.
- The purpose or central idea is stated clearly, usually in the opening.
- Organizational statement is offered, usually at the end of the opening.
- Style: Word choice (economy, precision, and specificity of language and detail; abstract vs. concrete language; action verbs vs. linking or weak verbs with nominalizations; figures of speech: schemes and tropes); tone (personality and humor); active vs. passive voice; sentence variety
- Word choice is economical, clear, specific, accurate, unassuming, and free of clichés and misused jargon.
- Action verbs are preferred over weak verbs with nominalizations (as in recommending over make a recommendation).
- Language is appropriately concrete or abstract.
- Correctness: Rules and conventions of spelling, grammar, punctuation, usage, and idiom; style (appropriateness of word choice and level of formality to audience, purpose, and material); social and cultural appropriateness; accuracy in proofreading
- Spelling (including technical terms and proper names) is correct.
- Correct words are used to convey the intended meaning.
- The copy is free of mechanical errors and lapses in proofreading.
Q2. Describe any situation in your own experience where the communication failed because the listening was faulty. Identify the barrier to listening in this situation.
Real world situation when communication failed due to faulty listening
Once, I got a chance to organizing a fate with my colleagues during my college days. We had to make team and I was a team member. A guy who was the leader of our team was not a good listener. He interrupted always in between the conversation; we got disturbed and forgot the previous conversation. We all repeated the same sentence always and unable to go ahead. During fixed debated time we were unable to finished however we decided to increase the time duration of the debated any how we finished it. There were the listening barriers all around.
Barriers to listening in this situation
- Physiological Barriers – This was discussed earlier under the barriers to communication. Some people may have genuine hearing problems or deficiencies that prevent them from listening properly. Once detected, they can generally be treated. Other people may have difficulty in processing information or memory-related problems which make them poor listeners. Another physiological barrier is rapid thought. Listeners have the ability to process information at the rate of approximately 500 words per minute, whereas speakers talk at around 125 words per minute. Since listeners are left with a lot of spare time, their attention may not be focused on what the speaker is saying but may wander elsewhere.
- Physical Barriers – These refer to distractions in the environment such as the sound of an air conditioner, cigarette smoke, or an overheated room, which interfere with the listening process. They could also be in the form of information overload.
- Attitudinal Barriers – Pre-occupation with personal or work related problems can make it difficult to focus one’s attention completely on what a speaker is saying, even if what is being said is of prime importance. Another common attitudinal barrier is egocentrism or the belief that you are more knowledgeable than the speaker and that you have nothing new to learn from his ideas. People with this kind of closed minded attitude make very poor listeners.
- Wrong Assumptions – The success of communication depends on both the sender and the receiver, as we have seen in an earlier unit. It is wrong to assume that communication is the sole responsibility of the sender or the speaker and that listeners have no role to play. Such an assumption can be a big barrier to listening.
Q3. Describe any 5 types of presentations with examples and their target audience.
Ans: There are following five types of presentations with examples and their target audience described below:
- Briefing and Information
The information briefing is used to inform the listener. This briefing deals primarily with facts, not conclusions or recommendations. Use it to present high priority information requiring immediate attention; complex information involving complicated plans, systems, statistics or charts; and controversial information requiring elaboration and explanation.
Example: New online leave application procedure
Target audience: Employees
Human resource management: An introductory stage in the process of new employee assimilation and a part of his or her continuous socialization process in an organization. Major objectives of orientation are to (1) gain employee commitment, (2) reduce his or her anxiety, (3) help him or she understands organization’s expectations, and (4) convey what he or she can expect from the job and the organization. It is commonly followed by training tailored to specific job positions. See also acculturation and company orientation.
Example: Orientation on Distance Education Terminology
Target audience: Employees
Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, productivity and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics).
Example: How to operate a new software
Target audience: Employees
- Reporting Research Findings:
Very often, you will have to write reports, which are documents containing factual and objective information that you have collected through research. Analytical research reports, which are written after having gathered important information from primary research resources such as surveys or experiments, rather than published documents, present original data that you collect and analyse. Learning to write them well, especially the Results and Discussion section, sometimes called Findings or simply Results, is an important skill you will need to learn.
Example: Consumer satisfaction survey
Target audience: Superiors
- Reporting Progress:
Progress reporting is a key activity of project management. The project manager issues regular reports of progress against budget, schedule and scope. Include these people on the circulation list:
- Project Sponsor.
- Budget Holder.
- Senior Users.
- Team Members.
Example: Report on weekly sales
Target audience: Superiors
Q4. Explain the different types of meetings.
Q5. You are going to face a job interview for the post of Manager-operations. Which aspects you will keep in mind while facing the interview?
Q6. Write short notes on:
Q7. Nonverbal communication is ambiguous. Explain the statement with an example. Also, discuss in brief the types of non-verbal communication.
Q8. What are the strategies for effective listening? Discuss each of them in short.
Q9. How does general writing differ from business writing in terms of language style and tone?
Q10. One has to decide whether it is necessary to have a meeting and then start planning for it. What types of meetings you can call for your business related activities?
Q11. What is the memo? When you write a memo, what language and writing style will you follow? Explain.
Q12. Write short notes on:
a) Business letters
b) Group discussions
Q13. Communication skills are of utmost importance in managing information and technology in any organization. List the characteristics of communication and discuss the seven barriers to effective communication.
Q14. Non-verbal communication can have a greater impact than verbal communication and is ambiguous. List and explain the various types of non-verbal communication in brief.
Q15. Written messages must be as readable as possible. Discuss the two broad principles of writing. Explain the three stages of writing methodology in detail.
Q16. There are various techniques of reading out of which SQ3R is most popular. How will you apply it while reading and research?
Q17. Advertisements are used by organizations to communicate with prospective customers. What is the meaning and objectives of corporate advertising? Discuss with examples.
Q18. In order to get a job, you need to approach an organization with a resume. How does a resume affect your employability? What are the components of the resume?
Q19. List the barriers to effective communication. What are the ways in which an organisation can overcome the barriers to communication?
Q20. Explain the different types of verbal communication.
Q21. Write short notes on:
- SQ3R technique of reading
Q22. Explain some of the approaches for handling customer complaints and listening to customers.
Q23. What are some of the consequences of spelling and punctuation errors, redundancies, clichés and misuse of words?
Q24. Explain the different delivery styles that speakers can select for their presentation.
Q25. What are the various types of communication? Describe the classification of non-verbal communication.
Q26. What is the importance of Kinesics and Proxemics in communication? Explain with examples.
Q27. How does internal business communication affect the organization? Discuss the role of each stakeholder in this.
Q28. Imagine a new product from the food industry. Write a persuasive letter to customers, persuading them to buy your company’s product.
Q29. Write short notes on:
a) SQ3R technique of reading
Q30. Explain the purpose of keeping minutes of a meeting. What goes into the contents of the minutes of a meeting?
Q31. Prepare a brief notice to be put up on official notice boards, informing employees of your organization about a newly introduced, official bus service.
Q32. Write short notes on (a) Upward communication (b) Downward communication (c) Horizontal communication
Q33. Go through business magazines and daily newspapers and select a situation when a company was facing a crisis (e.g., Coke and Pepsi pesticide controversy). How did the company communicate with its shareholders and other stakeholders to overcome the crisis? Was communication effective?
Q34. Discuss the different types of business reports
Q35. Explain why Public Relations is an important part of external business communication
Q36. Select a company of your choice in a sector that you would like to work in. Imagine that you have to make a brief presentation on this company to business school students. Develop – a) A general and specific statement of purpose b) The key idea c) Your style of delivery.
Q37. Write a short note on the SQ3R technique of reading.
Q38. (a) List the importance of effective communication in the workplace
(b) Explain the advantages of oral communication with the help of a suitable example.
Q39. Explain briefly the characteristics of communication.
Q40. Name the communication channel to which teleconferencing, Email, and telephone belong to. Explain teleconferencing.
Q41. “Informal communication network is not just for idle rumours and may be useful in many ways.” Justify.
Q42. Explain some of the approaches for handling customer complaints and listening to customers.
Q43. Explain briefly the four steps of the review process.
Q44. Explain the different delivery styles that speakers can select for their presentation.
Q45. Explain the different advantages and disadvantages of an intranet.
Q46. As a speaker, you are addressing a group of people. What could be the possible barriers in this communication?
Q47. What are the steps in making an oral business presentation?
Q48. Imagine a new product from kids’ apparel industry. Write a persuasive letter to customers, persuading them to buy your company’s product
Q49. Write short notes on:
Q50. Irrespective of the setting in which communication takes place, there are some key elements involved. What are the key elements of communication?
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