Research Methodology MCQs Sample Papers with Answer

__PART A (One mark questions) __

1) Carrying out an organised inquiry is called __________________.

**Research**- Survey
- Analysis
- Methodology

2) Logical reasoning process used in research is important to –

**Draw inferences**- Make studies
- Derive problem statements
- Frame hypothesis

3) Research really begins when the researcher experiences ______________.

- Turmoil
- Difficulty
**Confusion**- Emotions

4) Observable experience in research is also called as ____________________.

- Generalisation
- Unknown phenomena
- Causal experience
**Empirical evidence**

5) “The assignment of numbers to represent properties” is a definition related to –

- Research
- Hypothesis
**Measurement**- Scales

6) Stability means –

- Accurate
- Broad
**Consistency**- Depth

7) Construct validity will be developed by the researcher based on ________________.

**Theoretical reasoning**- Empirical evidence
- Investigation
- Observation

8) When ranks are assigned to objects based on their properties or characteristics then the level of measurement is described as –

- Interval measurement
- Nominal measurement
**Ordinal measurement**- Scientific

9) Delhi’s temperature in the last 2 days was less than 10 degrees compared to Chandigarh’s which was 12 degrees. This kind of study uses which level of measurement?

- Ratio
- Nominal
- Ordinal
**Interval**

10) __________means to tell whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid.

- Null hypothesis
**Testing of hypothesis**- Alternative hypothesis
- Type 1 and Type 2 errors

11) From which of these a research problem could be identified?

**Daily experiences**- Advertisements
- Experiments
- Imagination

12) When the respondent is given enough time and opportunity to answer questions given in a questionnaire, then such type of questionnaire is called as –

- Structured
- Formal
**Unstructured**- Informal

13) This is used in agricultural research.

- RB design
- Factorial design
**LS design**- CR design

14) “F” tests and “t” tests are used in which level of measurement?

- Ordinal
- Nominal
**Interval**- Ratio

15) Collecting sample units in a ‘hit and miss’ style is applicable in which of the following sampling methods?

- Judgement sampling
- Sub-sampling
**Convenience sampling**- Replicated sampling

16) Formulative research is also called as ___________________________.

**Exploratory research**- Experience survey
- Experimental research
- Field studies

17) In ANOVA, V stands for –

- Variable
- Vision
- Visual
**Variance**

18) A distribution of respondents based on their age group is represented in what type of frequency distribution table?

- Two-way table
- Class distribution
- Class interval
**One-way table**

19) Length, weight and height are considered as –

**Physical characteristics**- Abstract characteristics
- Characteristics that don’t have natural zero points
- Evidences

20) The most commonly used statistical average is –

**Arithmetic average**- Geometric mean
- Harmonic mean
- Standard deviation

21) When petrol price is increased, inflation rate is expected to rise – this could be an example depicting –

- Nonsense statistical relationship
- Mutual dependence of variables
- Spurious correlation
**Cause and effect relationship**

22) Coefficient of correlation is indicated by the letter –

**‘r’**- ‘s’
- ‘u’
- ‘x’

23) These are the examples of secondary data –

- Statistical survey, respondents’ answers, judgement of the researcher
- Telephone survey, mail survey, opinion polls
**Statistical survey reports, Government publications, trade journals**- Observational data, Awareness programmes, watching live TV

24) When there is correlation between any 2 variable then it is –

- Random correlation
**Simple correlation**- Partial correlation
- Linear correlation

25) To calculate ___________, data should be arranged according to ascending order.

**Median**- HM
- Mode
- Mean

26) Since Mail surveys are more impersonal they provide more _________________.

**anonymity**- scope
- flexibility
- originality

27) Who introduced standard deviation in statistics?

**Karl Pearson**- Spearman
- Wells
- American Statistical Institute

28) ____________________ data is readily available.

- Original
- Raw
- Primary
**Secondary**

29) When the characteristic of a measurement level is having no order or distance or origin, then it is ____________ level of measurement.

- Ordinal
- Cardinal
- Interval
**Nominal**

30) How many quartiles are there?

**3**- 4
- 5
- 9

31) A value which is most repeated in a distribution is ________________.

**Mode**- Median
- Mean
- Frequency

32) The mid-point of a particular class interval say 25-35 is –

- 29.5
- 31.5
**30**- 29

33) Null Hypothesis is denoted by –

- H = 0
- H0
**H0**- 0 àH

34) A good measurement scale should follow __________________ model.

**Straight line**- Parallel line
- Precision
- Interval

35) Scatter plots and Stock plots are examples for –

- Tables
- Reports
- Research designs
**Graphs**

36) Ethics in a research context refers to “the appropriateness of your behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of your work, or are affected by it.” This is applicable to you when you are –

- Respondent
**Researcher**- Reporter
- Receiver

37) In this type of level of measurement, there is no quantitative value as it doesn’t have the characteristics of order, distance and origin. This level of measurement is –

**Nominal**- Ordinal
- Interval
- Ratio

38) In Hypothesis testing, the level of significance is usually chosen at –

- 100%
- 95%
- 10.5%
**05%**

39) Which of the following is an example for continuous variable?

- Salary of an individual
- Cars manufactured by an automobile company
- Marks scored by a student
**Temperature of a city**

40) Which of these statements is true?

- A measuring instrument that is valid need not be reliable.
**A measuring instrument that is valid is always reliable.**- A measuring instrument that is reliable is also valid.
- Reliability and validity of a measuring instrument is inter-dependent.

** **

__PART B (Two marks questions) __

41) Following are the bases upon which measurement can be classified –

**Distance and Origin**- Speed and distance
- Date and time
- Month and year

42) Identify from the following, the class interval which is considered appropriate in a frequency distribution –

- 43-53, 54-64, 66-76, 77-88
- 10-20, 20-40, 40-80, 80-160
- 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-13
**1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40**

43) Which of these could be an example for pure research ?

**Newton’s law and Einstein’s theory of relativity**- Schrodinger’s research definitions
- Scientific methods and its applications
- Science

44) The two type of Content Validity are –

- Construct validity and Predictive validity
**Face validity and Sampling validity**- Reliability and Non-reliability
- Unidimensionality and Linearity

45) Name the two type statistical techniques that are applicable in Ordinal measurement.

- Geometric mean and Coefficient of variation
**Median and Coefficient of rank order correlation**- Mean and Standard deviation
- Random sampling probability and parametric tests

46) Identify the true and false statements –

- Mail surveys are less expensive than personal interviews.
- Mail surveys are subject to interview’s bias.

- a and b is false
- a is false, b is true
- a and b is true
**a is true and b is false**

47) Type II error occurs when –

- H0 is false and is rejected
**H0 is false and is accepted**- H1 is true and rejected
- H1 is true and accepted

48) If A’s savings is `5000, B’s savings is`

10000 and C’s savings is `30000, then their average savings is –

- `22500
- `10000
- `25000
**`15000**

49) A person having a ___________ and ______________mind and who is also sensitive to practical problems could easily identify a research problem for study.

- Curious and suspicious
- Thoughtful and sceptical
**Critical and imaginative**- Dreamy and relaxed

50) Co-efficient of range is obtained by the following formula –

- L – H
- H – L
- (H + L) – (H x L)
**(H – L) / (H + L)**

51) Non-parametric tests usually assume __________ data.

- Interval
**Original**- Quantitative
- Hypothetical

52) Identify the correct statement from the following –

- A research design is a logical and systematic representation of the data.
- Research design keeps the researcher in action.
- Research design cannot be concerned with data availability.
**Research design has to be kept within manageable limits.**

53) The scientific method involving a systematic step-by-step procedure following logical processes of reasoning is called as _____________________.

- Measurement
- Dispersion
**Research**- Survey

54) What are the internal criteria for a female researcher in order to formulate a problem?

- Her interest
- Her competence
- Her expectations
- Her importance
- Her feasibility
- Her resources

- 1, 2, 3, 4
**1, 2, 6**- 2, 4, 5
- 3, 5, 6

55) Which are the two most important parametric tests?

- x-test and y-test
- f-test and q-test
- v-test and u-test
**t-test and z-test**

56) While defining a problem, the next steps in the process after developing a title are –

**Building a conceptual model and defining the study objectives**- Controlling conditions and training investigators
- Recording details and verifying evidence
- Classifying data and analysing variables in the problem

57) Mention the two rights of respondents with respect to privacy.

- Right to participate in every research study and Right to reject being counted
**Right not to participate in any research study and Right to participate beyond a certain limit**- Right to view the other respondent’s answers and Right to be public about it
- Right to intervene with researcher and Right to mislead researcher

58) When a null hypothesis stating that “Average test score of Gautham Gambhir is 88.25 runs” is accepted, then it is –

- Risk
- Invalid
- False
**True**

59) A conjectural statement of the relationship between the two or more variables is defined as –

**Hypothesis**- Correlation
- Regression
- Research design

60) Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs out of which 2 are –

- Principle of replication and Principle of experimentation
**Principle of replication and Principle of randomisation**- Principle of randomness and Principle of locality
- Principle of authority and Principle of responsibility

** **** **

__PART C (Four marks questions)__

61) Identify the characteristics of research –

- Systematic
- Controlled
- Rigid
- Empirical
- Elastic

- 2, 3, 4
- 1, 2, 5
**1, 2, 4**- 3, 4, 5

62) Which type of data is described here?

- It is expensive to obtain
- It is time consuming
- It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled
- It is difficult to administer

- Secondary
**Primary**- Behavioural
- Quantitative

63) Match the following types of research with its example or meaning –

First set:

- Applied research
- Action research
- Descriptive research
- Diagnostic research

Second set:

- Provides factual information for investigation
- Type of evaluation study
- Tests the relationship between variables
- Finds solutions to real-life problems or situations
- Study of an unknown problem

- 1a, 2e, 3d, 4b
- 1b, 2a, 3c, 4e
- 1c, 2d, 3b, 4a
**1d, 2b, 3a, 4c**

64) Match the types of sampling methods with its feature –

First set:

- Simple random sampling
- Stratified random sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Multi-stage sampling

Second set:

- Useful in socio-economic surveys
- Also known as sequential sampling
- Increases sample’s statistical efficiency
- Estimating sampling error is complicated
- Each element has an equal change of being selected

**1e, 2c, 3a, 4d**- 1a, 2d, 3b, 4c
- 1c, 2e, 3d, 4b
- 1e, 2b, 3c, 4a

65) Identify the characteristics of a good hypothesis –

- Simplicity
- Acceptability
- Objectivity
- Clarity
- Durability
- Flexibility

- 1, 5, 6
- 2, 4, 5
**1, 3, 4**- 2, 4, 6

66) Identify and arrange the steps to be followed in research design –

- Designing the methods of data collection
- Selecting the sample
- Collecting the data
- Formulating the objective of the study
- Reporting the findings
- Processing and analyzing the data

- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
**4, 1, 2, 3, 6, 5**- 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 1
- 3, 5, 1, 4, 2, 6

67) Match the types of reports with its guidelines –

First set:

- Popular report
- Interim report
- Summary report
- Technical report

Second set:

- Contains all details as it is comprehensive
- More headlines and graphs can be used
- Written in non-technical and simple language
- Prepared by doctoral students
- Provides what was done so far and its outcome

- 1e, 2c, 3a, 4d
- 1a, 2d, 3b, 4c
- 1c, 2e, 3d, 4b
**1b, 2e, 3c, 4a**

68) Mr. Mukesh had analysed and processed some statistical data which now he wants to put in a tabular format. What should he include in the Heading while preparing this table?

- Headings of all columns
**Designation of units**- Footnotes wherever applicable
- Cells in rows and columns

69) Which type of sampling is discussed here?

- It is used when it is not important to study the sampling units’ overall representativeness to the population
- It is less costly and more convenient as it guarantees inclusion of relevant elements in the sample
- It requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using inferential statistics.
- It is also called as purposive sampling

- Area sampling
**Judgment sampling**- Snow-ball sampling
- Quota sampling

70) Match the following research designs with its perspective or through which the study is viewed –

First set:

- Descriptive
- Exploratory
- Observational
- Case method

Second set:

- Degree of formulation of the problem
- Mode of data collection
- Scope of the topic and depth of the study
- Nature of relationship between variables

- 1b, 2c, 3d, 4a
**1d, 2a, 3b, 4c**- 1c, 2d, 3a, 4b
- 1a, 2b, 3c, 4d

71) Identify the true and false statements regarding Observation method –

- Observation method poses difficulties in understanding events.
- It is slow and expensive process that needs constant technological inputs.
- Observer has to be present at the scene of the event when it takes place.
- Observer has to wait for the event to happen and be able to tell where and when exactly it takes place.

- 1, 2 is true and 3, 4 is false
- 1 is true and 2, 3, 4 is false
**3 is true and 1, 2, 4 is false**- 1, 4 is true and 2, 3 is false

72) Identify the correct and incorrect rules for graphical representation of data from the following –

- Title of the chart should be placed below it.
- Each curve or bar should be numbered.
- Only grey shades to be used in case of more curves or bars
- They should precede the textual content
- Measurements should be indicated from left to right in a horizontal line
- For vertical lines, measurements should be from top to bottom.
**1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 is incorrect**- 1, 3 is correct and 2, 4, 5, 6 is incorrect
- 1, 2, 3, 4 is correct and 5, 6 is incorrect
- 4, 5, 6 is correct and 1, 2, 3, is incorrect

73) In a research study, it was revealed that 40% of students did not use the learning resources provided to them while another 28% complained that they didn’t get adequate resources. Based on these results, the researcher cannot assume that remaining 32% don’t care to use the resources or its availability. What would be the responsibility of the researcher in this situation?

- Distort the numbers to arrive at a positive conclusion
- Make the assumptions that views of 32% students is invalid
- Write a report representing that 68% only responded to the study
**Find out the actual opinions and views of the 32% of students**

74) What are the requisites of a good and successful presentation?

- Communicate to a specific audience
- Communicate to all respondents
- Structure the presentation
- Advertise research expertise
- Be elaborate on the research complexities
- Address validity and reliability issues
- Involve other researchers to carry out the presentation
- 2, 3, 4
**1, 2, 5**- 3, 5, 6
- 1, 4, 5

75) From the below, identify the criteria for constructing hypothesis –

- It should be specific and precise
- It should describe atleast 2 issues
- It must be empirically testable
- It must have contradictory statements
- It must indicate the relationship between variables
**1, 2**- 1, 2, 3
- 1, 2, 3, 4
- 3, 5

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