Are you a student gearing up for your exams in 2023? Are you struggling to find comprehensive study materials specifically tailored to algorithms and data structures? Look no further, as we have got you covered! We will provide you with an extensive selection of MCQ on Algorithms and Data Structures in Pdf for 2023 exams.

Whether you are studying computer science, software engineering, or any related field, our collection of MCQs will serve as a valuable resource to enhance your exam preparation. So, let’s dive in and discover the perfect set of practice questions that will help solidify your understanding of these fundamental concepts.

## MCQ on Algorithms and Data Structures in Pdf for 2023 exams

1. ___ is used in dividing the larger problems into subproblems.

Ans. Modularity

2. The data structure which contains the hierarchical relationship between various elements is called a ___.

Ans. Tree

3. Insertion and deletion of an element in the queue are done in ___ and ___ ends respectively.

Ans. Rear and Front

4. ___ is called a list of the finite number of elements of similar data types.

Ans. Array

5. ___ is used in finding the location of the record with the given key value.

Ans. Searching

6. The ___ of the algorithm is depending on the time and space it uses.

Ans. Efficiency

7. ___ is used in combining the records in two different files into a single file.

Ans. Merging

8. ___ is a linear collection of nodes.

Ans. Linked list

9. ___ and ___ are the two fields of the linked list.

Ans. Data and Link fields

10. Processing each node of the linked list exactly once is called ___.

Ans. Traversing

11. Stack allows insertion and deletion at one end called ___.

Ans. Top

12. Insertion and deletion of the element from the stack is performed with ___ and ___ operation.

Ans. Push and pop

13. Before every insertion into the stack ___ condition needs to be checked.

Ans. OVERFLOW

14. P+Q and (X+Y)* Z is the ___ expression.

Ans. Infix

15. Addition is having higher precedence then Multiplication state. True/False.

Ans. False

16. Specify the method for deleting and element from the queue ___.

Ans. Dequeue

17. ___ and ___ are the two pointers are used in the queue.

Ans. FRONT and REAR

18. New node can be availed from the ___ list while inserting a new element into the queue.

Ans. AVAIL

19. ___ is used to find the location of an item in a linked list.

Ans. Searching

20. ___ is used to store the unused memory cells.

Ans. Free- storage list

21. Tree is a non-linear data structure state. True/False

Ans. True

22. List of nodes that belong to the same parent is called ___.

Ans. Siblings

23. Tree with only left subtree is called ___.

Ans. Left skewed tree

24. ___ order traversal follows the pattern as root, left, right.

Ans. Preorder

25. In an array representation of binary tree the right child of the root will be at the location at ___.

Ans. 3

26. In a complete binary tree right child of a node can be identified by ___.

Ans. 2*i+1

27. Breadth-first traversal otherwise called as ___.

Ans. Level order traversal

28. Linked representation of the tree facilitates the efficiency of memory. True/False.

Ans. True.

29. Conversion of the tree to the binary tree makes the tree ___.

Ans. Improper

30. Incomplete tree is very efficient in memory management. (True/False)

Ans. False

31. ___ is used to denote the leaf node representation as 1 in preorder sequential representation.

Ans. TAG

32. ___ and ___ are the vectors used for postorder sequential representation.

Ans. POST and DEGREE

33. A graph containing only isolated vertices is called ___.

a) isolated graph

b) null graph

c) directed graph

d) multigraph

Ans. b) – null graph

34. In a directed graph, the ___ of a vertex v is the number of edges of leaving v, and its ___ is the number of edges ending at v.

a) in-degree, out-degree

b) out-degree, in-degree

c) degree, edges

d) edges, degree

Ans. b) Out-degree, In-degree

35. In the adjacency matrix, ‘1’ is marked in a cell if there exists an edge between two nodes that index that cell. (True/false)

Ans. True

36. A null graph consists of V vertices but no edges, then the adjacency matrix has all of its entire elements as___.

Ans. zero

37. In the incidence matrix, If the kth edge is (vi, vj ) then the kth column has a value ___ in the ith row, ___ in the jth row and ___ elsewhere.

a) 1,-1,0

b) -1,1,0

c) 0,1,-1

d) 0,-1,1

Ans. a) 1,-1,0

38. For adjacency list the number of distinct unordered pairs (vi, vj) with vi,≠ vj in a graph with n vertices is___.

Ans. n (n-1)/2

39. The three properties associated with list structures are:

a) Order, depth, length

b) Degree, vertices, edges

c) Atom, element, list

d) Cost, weight, data

Ans. a) order, depth, length

40. In-Depth First search the same node is visited more than once. (True/False)

Ans. False

41. Breadth-first search algorithm uses a ___ data structure to perform the search. (Pick the right option)

a) Tree

b) Linked-list

c) Queue

d) Hashes

Ans. c) Queue

42. A spanning tree is known as a spanning forest if the graph is undirected and connected. (True/False)

Ans. False

43. If the graph is not connected in the spanning tree, then it is known as ___.

Ans. spanning forest

44. ___ technique is used to collect all the free cells and store that in the free pool.

Ans. Garbage Collection

45. ___ and ___ are the types of the linked list.

Ans. Doubly and Circular linked list

46. The Doubly linked list is also called ___.

Ans. Two- way list

47. Nodes do not have any clear parent-child relationship like in the tree. (True/False)

Ans. True

48. In an undirected graph, edge (v1,v2) is equivalent to edge ___ since they are unassigned.

Ans. (v2,v1)

49. A directed graph is also referred to as an ___.

Ans. Oriented Graph

50. The number of edges incident out of a vertex v is called the ___.

Ans. Out-Degree

51. DAGs may have more than one possible topological order. (True/False)

Ans. True

52. Descriptor’s successor must appear after that descriptor in ___ ordering for topological sort.

a) linear

b) alphabetical

c) random

d) unique

Ans. a) linear

53. Dijkstra’s algorithm can be applied for unweighted directed graph. (True/False)

Ans. False

54. In Dijkstra’s algorithm, ___ are assigned to each vertex.

a) weight

b) length

c) cost

d) labels

Ans. d) labels

55. Minimum spanning tree is always unique. (True/False)

Ans. False

56. Minimum spanning tree is a graph with weight ___ than or ___ to the weight of every other spanning tree.

a) less, greater

b) less, equal

c) greater, equal

d) greater, always greater.

Ans. b) less, equal

57. Prim’s minimum spanning tree algorithm is known as ___ style algorithm.

a) greedy

b) unique

c) linear

d) sparse

Ans. a) greedy

58. There are certain polynomial-time algorithms that can be considered tractable. (True/False)

Ans. True

59. If the solution is found out to minimize or maximize a given value, then such type of problems are ___ problems.

Ans. optimization

60. An algorithm that returns near-optimal solutions (in polynomial time) is called the ___ algorithm.

Ans. Approximation

61. A problem is NP-hard if an algorithm to solve it in (deterministic) polynomial time would make it possible to solve all ___ problems in polynomial time.

a) decision

b) non-deterministic

c) NP

d) optimization

Ans. c) NP

62. Identify the algorithm given below:

For k = 0 to n-1

MIN⇓k

For m = k + 1 to n

if (A[m] < A[k]

MIN⇓m

End if

Swap(A[m], A[k]); // swap min to front

Return

Ans. selection sort

63. A vertex v is said to be an isolated vertex if the out-degree of v and the in-degree of v are equal to ___.

Ans. Zero

64. Let X be a set, and R a relation on X. The relation R is said to be ___ if a, b, c ∈ R, aRb, bRc ⇒ aRc.

Ans. Transitive

65. Each maximal connected subgraph of a digraph D, is said to be a ___ of D

Ans. Component

66. A closed directed walk that traverses every edge of D exactly once, is called a ___.

Ans. Directed Euler line

67. A tree of n vertices contains ___ edges.

Ans. n – 1

68. Let D be a digraph with p vertices. The adjacency matrix of D is a ___ matrix

Ans. pxp

69. Sorting is the process of arranging the content in some order based on ___ criterion.

Ans. ordering

70. Merge sort uses ___ technique to sort the elements.

Ans. divide-and-conquer

#### Conclusion

The MCQs on Algorithms and Data Structures in PDF format for 2023 exams have provided a valuable resource for students to test their knowledge and understanding.

These multiple-choice questions offer a comprehensive review of key concepts and principles, allowing students to practice and improve their problem-solving skills. We hope that these MCQs have helped you prepare for your upcoming exams and gain a stronger grasp of algorithms and data structures.

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