Marketing Management Question Bank with Answer
1. Many companies have created a ________ position to put marketing on a more equal footing with other C-level executives.
Answer : CMO
2 ________ are wants for specific products backed by an ability to pay.
Answer : Demands
3 ___________ is the father of marketing management.
Answer : Philip Kotler
4 The first phase of the value creation and delivery sequence is _________.
Answer : Choosing the value
5 The _________ is the central instrument for directing and coordinating the marketing effort.
Answer : Marketing plan
6 A SBU refers to _________.
Answer : Strategic Business Unit
7 SWOT analysis refers to an analysis of a company’s _________.
Answer : Strengths; Weaknesses; Opportunities; Threats
8 MOA refers to _________.
Answer : Market Opportunity Analysis
9 _________ shapes the beliefs, values, and norms that largely define tastes and preferences.
Answer : Society
10 The _________ environment is composed of laws, government agencies, and pressure groups.
Answer : Political-legal
11 The first step in the marketing research process is _____.
Answer : Define the problem and research objectives
12 Data that is freshly gathered for a specific purpose is called _____.
Answer : Primary data
13 Research that is designed to capture cause-and-effect relationships by eliminating competing explanations of observed findings is called _____.
Answer : Experimental research
14 The set of consumers who are buying the company’s product is the _____.
Answer : Penetrated market
15 The sales goal for a product line, company division, or sales representative is called a _____.
Answer : Sales quota
16 Customer churn refers to ____.
Answer : Customer defection
17 ________ consists of the whole cluster of benefits the company promises to deliver.
Answer : Value proposition
18 _____ is the fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and behavior.
Answer : Culture
19 A _____ consists of the activities a person is expected to perform.
Answer : Lifestyle
20 _____ refers to how information gets out of memory.
Answer : Memory retrieval
21 The decision making unit of a buying organization is called the ________.
Answer : Buying center
22 A(n) _____ is user that requests that something be purchased.
Answer : Initiator
23 The _____ market consists of schools, hospitals, nursing homes and prisons.
Answer : Institutional
24 In _____ marketing, the seller engages in the production, distribution, and promotion of one product for all buyers.
Answer : Mass
25 _____ Marketing reflects a growing trend called grassroots marketing.
Answer : Local
26 _____ segmentation calls for dividing the market into groups based on age, family, size, family life cycle, gender, income, etc.
Answer : Demographic
27 A _____ is a set of segments sharing some exploitable similarity.
Answer : Supersegment
28 A company uses _____ invasion plans to enter one segment at a time.
Answer : Segment-by-segment
29 _____ is endowing products and services with the power of a brand.
Answer : Branding
30 ________ marketing is the practice of marketing to consumers only after obtaining their expressed experience.
Answer : Permission
31 _____ occurs when customers experience the company as delivering on its brand promise.
Answer : Brand bonding
32 When a firm uses an established brand to introduce a new product it is called a _____.
Answer : Brand extension
33 A _____ product is one whose brand name has been licensed to other manufacturers who actually make the product.
Answer : Licensed
34 _____ pass through four stages: distinctiveness, emulation, mass fashion, and decline.
Answer : Fashions
35 The _____ stage is marked by a rapid climb in sales.
Answer : Growth
36 During the _____ stage sales and profits decline and some firms withdraw from the market.
Answer : Decline
37 If a new product sells well, new firms will enter the market, ushering in a(n) ________________ stage.
Answer : Market-growth
38 Firms that serve small markets not being served by larger firms are known as ________.
Answer : Market nicher
39 The firm with the largest market share in the relevant product market is called the _____.
Answer : Market leader
40 In a pure _____ attack, the attacker matches its opponent’s product, advertising, price, and distribution.
Answer : Frontal
41 The _____ takes the leader’s products and improves them.
Answer : Adapter
42 In developed countries, brand positioning and competition takes place at the _____ product level.
Answer : Augmented
43 _____ goods are purchased without any planning or search effort.
Answer : Impulse
44 _____ is the totality of features that affect how a product looks and functions in terms of customer requirements.
Answer : Design
45 _____ refers to how well the product or service is brought to the customer.
Answer : Delivery
46 Some products that require the use of other products are called _____ products.
Answer : Captive
47 _____ is defined as all activities of designing and producing the container for a product.
Answer : Packaging
48 The _____ identifies the product or brand.
Answer : Label
49 Services cannot be stored. This describes the _____ characteristic of services.
Answer : Perishability
50 SSTS refers to _____.
Answer : Self-Service Technologies
51 The services a customer expects are called the _____ service package.
Answer : Primary
52 _____ cost refers to the product’s purchase cost plus the discounted cost of maintenance and repair less the discounted salvage value.
Answer : Life cycle
53 _____ pricing is used to maximize the company’s market share.
Answer : Market penetration
54 _____ cost is the cost per unit at that level of production.
Answer : Average
55 In _____ pricing the firm bases its price largely on competitors’ prices.
Answer : Going rate
56 In _____ pricing the company decides how to price its products to different customers in different locations and countries.
Answer : Geographical
57 The direct exchange of goods, with no money and no third party involved, is called a(n) _____________.
Answer : Barter
58 _____ occurs when a company sells a product or service at two or more prices that do not reflect a proportional difference in costs.
Answer : Price discrimination
59 _____ involves the use of mail, telephone, fax, e-mail, or Internet to communicate directly with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers and prospects.
Answer : Direct marketing
60 _____ is/are any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.
Answer : Advertising
61 A _____ is a salesperson whose expertise is in the solving of a customer’s problem, often with a system of the company’s products and services.
Answer : Solution vendor
62 A(n) _____ sales force consists of full- or part-time paid employees who work exclusively for the company.
Answer : Direct
63 The first step in the selling process is _____.
Answer : Prospecting and qualifying
64 The first step in the new product development decision process is _____.
Answer : Idea generation
65 _____ is when the company tests its product with customers.
Answer : Beta testing
66 A(n) _____ is any good, service or idea that is perceived by someone as new.
Answer : Innovation
67 _____ proximity refers to a comfort level with countries that have similar language, laws, and culture.
Answer : Psychic
68 _______ is the practice of buying goods and services from foreign vendors.
Answer : Outsourcing
69 _____ refers to studying “best practice companies” to improve performance.
Answer : Benchmarking
70 _________ type of consumer buys goods for his own use or for the use of his household.
Answer : Personal consumer
71 The first step in the consumer research process is _______________
Answer : Defining the objectives of the research project
72 A discussion group led by a moderator in which 8 to 10 participants discuss an idea for a new product is called a(n)_____________.
Answer : Focus group
73 A step-by-step outline of the topics to be discussed in a focus group is called a(n)_______________.
Answer : Discussion guide
74 The VALS segmentation system is based on the research of_____________
Answer : Abraham Maslow
75 Segmentation is based on the amount of usage of the product is called _________
Answer : Behavioral targeting
76 Needs such as physiological, food, water, air, clothing, and shelter are __________type of needs
Answer : Essential needs
77 ___________type of needs involve the need for food, the need for water, and the need to avoid cold.
Answer : Physiological needs
78 Another term for “daydreaming” is_________
Answer : Autistic thinking
79 In Maslow’s theory of motivation, ____________type of needs are the most basic of human needs.
Answer : Physiological needs
80 An individual’s inner psychological characteristics that determine how that person responds to his environment are known as____________
Answer : Personality
81 In Karen Horney’s personality groups, ______________ group focuses on people who desire to excel and to win admiration from others.
Answer : Aggressive
82 In trait theory, the degree of receptiveness a consumer feels toward “new experiences” is called______________
Answer : Consumer innovativeness
83 _______________cognitive personality attribute refers to consumers who prefer verbal information about new products to visual information.
Answer : Verbalizers
84 The process by which a consumer selects and interprets stimuli into a meaningful picture is called__________
Answer : Perception
85 The minimal difference between two similar stimuli is called the____________
Answer : J.N.D
86 The ________ a consumer’s need, the ______ the tendency for that consumer to ignore unrelated stimuli
Answer : Stronger; greater
Answer : 87 The concept of “figure and ground” is central to___________
Answer : Gestalt psychology
88 When a retailer marks a shirt for sale as “Their price $29, our price $15”, this is an example of ___________type of pricing.
Answer : Reference pricing
89 The process of acquiring purchase and consumption knowledge that applies to future behavior is known as______________
Answer : Consumer learning
90 When a consumer’s attention and retention start to decline after that consumer has watched a TV commercial several times, this is called_________
Answer : Advertising wears out
91 Another term for instrumental condition is _______ conditioning.
Answer : Operant
92 __________type of stimulus is designed to discourage a specific behavior.
Answer : Punishment
93 Another term for co-branding is__________
Answer : Double branding
94 ___________component of an attitude refers to a consumer’s feelings toward a movie that she has seen.
Answer : Affective
95 ______________ is best-suited toward measuring a consumer’s attitude toward a specific brand.
Answer : Attitude-toward-object model
96 ____________aspect of the theory of planned behavior deals with a consumer’s perception of whether the behavior is within his control.
Answer : PBC
97 The simulated perception of direct experience is called__________
Answer : Telepresence
98 When a consumer is asked during a phone interview only three questions, and after answering them, the caller asks the consumer to donate three hours of his time to tutoring a student who needs help with learning English, __________technique is being used.
Answer : Foot-in-the-door technique
99 The transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver goes through a(n)______________
Answer : Medium
100 The initiator of a message that is sent to a receiver is called a (n)______________
Answer : Source
101 Word-of-mouth communications that occur online are called__________
Answer : e-WOM
102 Another term for source amnesia is_________
Answer : The sleeper effect
103 Two or more people who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who live in the same residence are called a(n)______________
Answer : Family
104 The classification of members of a society into a hierarchy of status classes is called______________
Answer : social class
105 __________of the following is the first level of subjective culture.
Answer : Supranational level
106 The learning of your own culture is called___________
Answer : Enculturation
107 __________type of symbol is based on the words used in a television commercial.
Answer : Verbal
108 A series of behaviors performed in a fixed-sequence over and over again is called a(n)______________
Answer : Ritual
109 A cultural group that has an identifiable segment within a larger society is called a(n)______________
Answer : Subculture
110 A consumer’s attitudes, beliefs, and decision rules about purchasing products are called that consumer’s__________
Answer : Style
111 By 2025, India’s middle-class is predicted to be about ____________many times more than it is today.
Answer : Ten times
112 ____________type of products share a common language.
Answer : High-involvement, high-tech
113 _______________ is a macro process that deals with the adoption of a new product from its producer to the consumers who purchase it.
Answer : Diffusion
114 _________________ type of product innovation is concerned with modifying an existing product instead of creating a completely new type of product.
Answer : Continuous innovation
115 _____________ type of product characteristic deals with the degree to which a new product if difficult for consumers to understand or to use.
Answer : Complexity
116 When a consumer is considering purchasing an HDTV for the first time, __________ type of problem-solving process is this consumer likely to use.
Answer : Extensive problem solving
117 Another term for the emotional view of consumers is_____________
Answer : The impulsive view
118 ___________type of input of a firm deals with the efforts of the firm to reach, inform, and persuade consumers to purchase its products.
Answer : Marketing
119 Consumer decision rules are called__________
Answer : Heuristics
120 __________type of consumer segment shops for products that are the lowestprice brands.
Answer : Bottom-line price shoppers
121 _____________type of communication model is in effect when television commercials are used.
Answer : Broadcasting
122 Product placement is a type of__________
Answer : Branded entertainment
123 Another term for covert marketing is__________
Answer : Stealth marketing
124 ____________type of advertising helps build an image for the product.
Answer : Product
125 ______________is a form of direct response communications
Answer : Direct mail
126 ___________ form of communications is primarily directed toward gaining public acceptance and understanding.
Answer : Public relations
127 Companies can contact customers directly more easily than in the past through the use of____________
Answer : Database management systems
128 __________condition prompts a consumer to satisfy a need.
Answer : Motive
129 The development and manufacture of unique products for unique customers is known as__________
Answer : Mass customization
130 The formal approach to business-to-business purchase decision making involves____________
Answer : A buying committee
131 ____________plan, designed by senior executives, will influence the nature of the various brand marketing plans developed by middle managers.
Answer : Corporate plan
132 When a company holds semi-annual or quarterly reviews, they are exercising the process of__________
Answer : Marketing control
133 Fostering a positive public image is an example of __________type of objective.
Answer : Marketing communications
134 The media plan is one of the two components that make up the__________
Answer : Advertising plan
135 __________is the part of the brand that can be spoken.
Answer : Brand name
136 The brand’s position in the marketplace and the hearts and minds of consumers is reflected by___________
Answer : Brand equity
137 ______________is in the marketing organization is responsible for building a brand.
Answer : The brand manager
138 _________ is the first step in the process of building a brand.
Answer : Identify and establish brand values and positioning strategy
139 The content of most advertising in any medium usually includes_____________
Answer : Brand elements
140 The value that consumers attach to a brand attribute is known as the____________
Answer : Benefit
141 Any form of disruption in the communication process is referred to as_____________
Answer : Noise
142 ______________marketing communications activity is defined as a paid form of non-personal message communicated through the various media.
Answer : Advertising
143 Advertisements designed specifically to include special offers generally have an objective to_____________
Answer : Encourage trial purchase
144 The statement of how the message will be communicated to the target audience is the__________
Answer : Creative strategy
145 The backbone of a direct response communications strategy is_______________
Answer : Quality information
146 Direct response communications is a subset of_______________
Answer : Direct marketing
147 B2B marketers often rely on a commercial database that provides information about a company. These are called______________
Answer : Directory databases
148 The collection of websites on the Internet is known as__________________
Answer : The World Wide Web
149 _____________type of website serves as a gateway to other services on the internet.
Answer : Portal
150 Email campaigns that encourage the recipient of a message to pass it on to a friend are known as_____________
Answer : Viral marketing
151 Any individual who accesses a website within a specific time period is referred to as the_____________
Answer : Visitor
152 A list of people who have agreed to receive messages via email is known as the____________
Answer : Opt-in list
153 Cell phones and PDAs are the vehicles used for _____________ type of transmission.
Answer : Text messaging
154 ____________area of sales promotion is relied upon to implement a pull strategy.
Answer : Consumer promotion
155 ______________medium is ideal for creating instant awareness of a promotion.
Answer : Television
156 Publicity is something that a company, and the media, deem to be___________
Answer : Newsworthy
157 Media exposure can be measured in terms of_______________
Answer : Impressions
158 One way to execute a public relations strategy is to draft a document containing all the essential elements of the story. This is also known as___________
Answer : A press release
159 A salesperson’s advance preparation is divided into three primary areas: product knowledge, company knowledge, and___________________
Answer : Competitor knowledge
160 It is crucial for a salesperson to provide information about what to expect in after-sales service. This falls into the area of______________
Answer : Company knowledge
161 Personal selling involves communicating the value a customer will receive from a product or service, as well as the more tangible aspects, which are known as_________
Answer : Features
162 The final step in the personal selling process is____________
Answer : Follow-up
163 A statement such as, “What is the best day to deliver?” would be used in __________ type of close.
Answer : Assumptive close
164 ____________marketing function links the customer to the marketer through information.
Answer : Marketing research
165 Fixed-response questioning in a survey is also known as_____________
Answer : closed-ended
166 A “short” definition of marketing is ________.
Answer : Meeting needs profitably
167 ______________ is the process of designing, gathering, analyzing, and reporting information that may be used to solve a specific marketing problem.
Answer : Marketing research
168 The information system that gathers information generated by internal reports, including customer orders, billing, receivables, inventory levels, sales reports, customer data, and so on is called the ________.
Answer : Internal reports system
169 _____ is the appropriate term when marketing research is being conducted on a specific customer group in a specific geographic area.
Answer : Market research
170 _____ projects are launched only when there is a justifiable need for information that is not available from the other components of the MIS.
Answer : Marketing research
171 ____________data should always be sought first as it is relatively cheap and fast to collect.
Answer : Secondary
172 Whether the research design requires that respondents be asked questions or that their behavior be observed, the standardized forms used to record the information are called ________.
Answer : Questionnaires
173 _____ consists of the entire group about which the researcher wishes to make inferences based on information provided by the sample data.
Answer : Population
174 During ____________ stage of the product life cycle is marketing research not likely to be used.
Answer : Decline
175 _______________kind of research design enables researchers to isolate cause and effect relationships via experiments.
Answer : Causal research
176 The process by which raw data are checked to verify that the data have been correctly input from the data-collection form to the computer software program is called ________.
Answer : Data cleaning
177 ____________is recognized today as being the “Father of Marketing Research.
Answer : Charles Coolidge Parlin
178 When a firm has its own marketing research department this is known as an ________ supplier.
Answer : Internal
179 Marketing researchers may be certified with the ______________.
Answer : Professional Researcher Certification
180 To identify problems arising from failure to meet objectives, managers depend on ________ .
Answer : Control systems
181 Preliminary research undertaken to gather background information and gather data pertinent to the problem area that may be helpful in properly defining the problem is ________ .
Answer : A situation analysis
182 _____ are statements that are taken as true for the purposes of argument or investigation.
Answer : Hypotheses
183 _____________is a key question that helps managers and researchers properly identify the problem.
Answer : What information is needed to make a decision?
184 If I spend more on advertising, then sales will rise. This statement is an illustration of_____concepts.
Answer : Causality
185 Variables over which we have little or no direct control and yet have a strong interest in are called ______.
Answer : Dependent variables
186 If the observed change in our dependent variable is due to the manipulation of our independent variable AND these results apply to the “real world”, we can say that our experiment has ________.
Answer : Validity
187 _____________is the name for software that is available to help managers make sense of the vast quantities of information from internal databases.
Answer : Data mining
188 Secondary data that is sold to multiple subscribers, thus making the costs more reasonable to any one subscriber, are called:___________
Answer : Syndicated services data
189 _____ are highly specialized secondary data and are not available in libraries or for the general public.
Answer : Syndicated services data
190 Data that can be obtained quickly and inexpensively are usually available, enhance primary data collection, and can sometimes achieve the research objective, are best described as ________.
Answer : Secondary data
191 Data collected in a standard format and made available to all subscribers is ________.
Answer : Syndicated data
192 _____ can tell a firm how well its own products are selling and also provide sales data for competitors’ products.
Answer : Tracking studies
193 Data from panels of consumers that contain information on several variables, such as promotional message exposure, demographics, and buyer behavior, is known as ________.
Answer : Single source data
194 _____ research is a term borrowed from anthropology; it is defined as a detailed, descriptive study of a group and its behavior, characteristics, culture, etc.
Answer : Ethnographic
195 ________ measurement involves monitoring a respondent’s involuntary responses to marketing stimuli via the use of electrodes and other equipment.
Answer : Physiological
196 Sometimes a focus group and/or interviews are used after a survey involving a large sample of respondents in order to help the researcher understand the findings of their survey. This is an example of ________.
Answer : Pluralistic research
197 __________ technology is referred to, such as caller ID, answering machines, call waiting, etc., that makes it more difficult to reach prospective survey participants.
Answer : Gatekeepers
198 With ___________ survey researchers are most concerned about self selection.
Answer : Mail
199 _____ means that respondents who return surveys by mail may differ from the original sample.
Answer : Self-selection bias
200 A valid measure is one that is ________.
Answer : Truthful
201 _____ is the sequence of statements and questions that make up a questionnaire.
Answer : Questionnaire organization
202 The use of numbers associated with the question responses to facilitate data entry during data collection and data analysis after the survey has been conducted is called ________.
Answer : Coding
203 _____ samples are most appropriate when there is a limited and disappointingly short sample frame and when respondents can provide the names of others who would qualify for the survey.
Answer : Referral
204 The percentage of people on a list who qualify as members of the population is referred to as the ________.
Answer : Incidence rate
205 Marketing managers typically confuse sample size with sample ________.
Answer : Representativeness
206 The only perfectly accurate sample is a ________.
Answer : Census
207 _____ error pertains to all sources of error other than the sample selection method and sample size.
Answer : Nonsampling
208 _____ refers to how similar or dissimilar responses are to a given question.
Answer : Variability
209 A range whose endpoints define a certain percentage of the responses to a question is a ________.
Answer : Confidence interval
210 In the formula for sample error, p*q signifies ________.
Answer : Variability
211 ____ such as “We are almost finished,” are used to keep the respondent on track and alert.
Answer : Prompters
212 _____ is a failure on the part of a prospective respondent to take part in the survey or to answer specific questions on the questionnaire.
Answer : Nonresponse
213 _____ refers to the identification of codes that pertain to the possible responses for each question on the questionnaire.
Answer : Data coding
214 A _____ is the coded raw data from a survey.
Answer : Data matrix
215 _____ is drawing a conclusion based on some evidence.
Answer : Inference
216 What the manager or researcher expects the population mean (or percentage) to be is called a(n) ________.
Answer : Hypothesis
217 _____ is a statistical procedure used to “accept” or “reject” the hypothesis based on sample information.
Answer : A hypothesis test
218 To be potentially useful to the marketing researcher or manager, differences must, at minimum, be ______.
Answer : Statistically significant
219 A ________ difference is one that the marketing manager can potentially use as a basis for marketing decisions.
Answer : Meaningful
220 Often researchers will want to compare two groups that exist in the same sample; these groups are characterized as ________.
Answer : Independent samples
221 _____ holds that different types of consumers have different requirements, and these differences can be the bases of marketing strategies.
Answer : Market segmentation
222 With large samples due to huge databases and online surveys that garner thousands of respondents, there is the potential of finding a great deal of statistical significance that is not ________.
Answer : Meaningful
223 _____ analyses determine whether stable relationships exist between two variables.
Answer : Associative
224 _____ means that you know if the relationship between two variables is positive or negative.
Answer : Direction
225 Associations in which there is a high probability of the two variables exhibiting a dependable relationship, regardless of the type of relationship being analyzed, are characterized as having _______.
Answer : Strength
226 A factual message that transmits research results, vital recommendations, conclusions, and other important information to the client is called the ________.
Answer : Marketing research report
227 _____ electronically distributes marketing research reports to selected managers in an interactive format that allows each user to conduct his/her own analyses.
Answer : Online reporting software
228 ___________ is most useful when you want to illustrate the relative sizes or proportions of one component versus others.
Answer : Pie charts
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