Management process and organisational behaviour model assignments

Management Process and Organisational Behaviour

 

Q1. Define the terms ‘strategy’. Explain the following:

  1. a) Corporate strategy
  2. b) Business strategy
  3. c) Functional strategy

 

Ans:

 

Strategy:

A method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal or solution to a problem. The art and science of planning and marshalling resources for their most efficient and effective use.

 

a) Corporate strategy

Corporate Strategy is concerned with how companies, like Disney, create value across different businesses. It takes as given the RC lessons on competitive strategy, and asks how the corporation can add value over and above that which a business unit creates by itself. This requires the corporation to invest in a valuable set of resources, craft the business portfolio, and design the organization structure, systems and corporate functions to share activities or transfer skills across businesses.

The corollary of effective corporate strategy is that there is a limit to the scope of the firm. This insight suggests that issues of corporate strategy apply to firms of every size. Should a startup build its own sales force or rely on third party distributors? Thus while the course naturally covers strategy in large diversified companies, it also features smaller companies that appear to operate in a single business.

 

 b) Business strategy

A business strategy is the means by which it sets out to achieve its desired ends (objectives). It can simply be described as a long-term business planning. Typically a business strategy will cover a period of about 3-5 years.

A business strategy is concerned with major resource issues e.g. raising the finance to build a new factory or plant. Strategies are also concerned with deciding on what products to allocate major resources to – for example when Coca-Cola launched Pooh Roo Juice in this country. Strategies are concerned with the scope of a business’ activities i.e. what and where they produce.

 

c) Functional strategy

Organizational plan for human resources, marketing, research and development and other functional areas. The functional strategy of a company is customized to a specific industry and is used to back up other corporate and business strategies.

Functional strategy is the process of choosing decisions rules that will be applied in different function areas. Functional strategies are aimed at enhancing the efficiency of the personnel and increase revenue for the company. The different functional strategies are production strategy, financial strategy, and organizational strategy. Functional strategy- selection of decision rules in each functional area. Thus, functional strategies in any organization, some (e.g., marketing strategy, financial strategy, etc.).

  

 

Q2. Define the term ‘management’. Explain the Behavioural science theory and Systems theory.

 

Ans:

 

Definition of management:

Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”. Some of these definitions are:

 

According to Lawerence A. Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things.”(1959)

 

In the words of Henry Fayol – “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.”(1949)

 

According to Peter F. Drucker – “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and managers and manages worker and work”. (1970)

 

Behavioural science theory

 

These theorists engaged in objective research of human behavior in organizations. Some of the major theorists who contributed to the growth of OB as a discipline are briefly given below.

 

  1. F. Skinner – His research on conditioning (classical and operant) and behavior modification influenced the design of organization training programs and reward systems. Behavior is a function of consequence according to Skinner and he stated that people engage in a desired behavior only if they are rewarded for it and less likely to be repeated if an individual is not rewarded or punished for it

 

David McClelland – his work has helped organizations to match people with jobs and in redesigning jobs for high achievers in order to maximize their motivation potential. For example, people who have undergone achievement training in India, have been found to work longer hours, initiate more new business ventures, made greater investments in productive assets than those who did not undergo such training

 

Systems theory

Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research. The term does not yet have a well-established, precise meaning, but systems theory can reasonably be considered a specialization of systems thinking, a generalization of systems science, and a systems approach. The term originates from Bertalanffy’s general system theory (GST) and is used in later efforts in other fields, such as the action theory of Talcott Parsons and the social systems theory of Niklas Luhmann.

 

In this context the word systems is used to refer specifically to self-regulating systems i.e. that are self-correcting through feedback. Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science, which studies the nature of complex systems in nature, society and science, and studies complex parts of reality as systems.

 

  

Q3. Give the definition and importance of planning in an organisation and explain the steps in planning.

 

Ans:

 

Definition of planning in an organisation:

In organizations, planning is a management process, concerned with defining goals for company’s future direction and determining on the missions and resources to achieve those targets. To meet the goals, managers may develop plans such as a business plan or a marketing plan. Planning always has a purpose.

 

Importance of planning in an organisation:

 

  1. Efficient Use of Resources: All organizations, large and small, have limited resources. The planning process provides the information top management needs to make effective decisions about how to allocate the resources in a way that will enable the organization to reach its objectives.

 

  1. Establishing Goals: Setting goals that challenge everyone in the organization to strive for better performance is one of the key aspects of the planning process.

 

  1. Managing Risk and Uncertainty: Managing risk is essential to an organization’s success. Even the largest corporations cannot control the economic and competitive environment around them.

 

  1. Team Building: Planning promotes team building and a spirit of cooperation. When the plan is completed and communicated to members of the organization, everyone knows what their responsibilities are, and how other areas of the organization need their assistance and expertise in order to complete assigned tasks.

 

List of Steps in planning:

  1. Goal Setting
  2. Research
  3. Weigh Options
  4. Direction
  5. Begin
  6. Adapting

 

Explanations of steps:

 

Step One: Goal Setting: This first step is a bit obvious. You need to have a goal in mind. One example would be “to buy a new car.”

 

Step Two: Research: Start talking about your goal and research what it will take to fulfill it. If the goal were to buy a new car, start looking at types of cars, specifications and so forth.

 

Step Three: Weigh Options: There’s almost never just one way to do something. Explore your choices. Using our auto example, some options would be the type of vehicle to buy the price range, the color and how to pay for it.

 

Step Four: Direction: Now that you have a goal, knowledge of that goal, and options towards obtaining it, you’re now ready to decide the best course of action.

 

Step Five: Begin: Many people fail at this step. It can be relatively easy to make a plan up to this point.

 

Step Six: Adapting: The most successful people in the world are those that can adapt to current situations.

 

Admission – Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

 

Q4. What is meant by leading? Describe the characteristics of leading.

Q5. What are ‘attitudes’? Explain the components and functions of attitude.

Q6. Define leadership. Differentiate between ‘Laissez Faire’ and ‘democratic’ leadership style.

Q7. (a) A vision statement is a formal statement of what a business wants to be. According to Collins and Porras, a vision statement should have four parts. What are those four parts?  (b) Differentiate between ‘process’ and ‘tasks’

Q8. Planning is called as the cornerstone of management. Define planning and describe the importance of planning. Explain the types of planning.

Q9. What is meant by ‘span of control’? Differentiate between narrow span of control and wide span of control. What are the factors that influence the span of control?

Q10. Define Organisational behaviour. What are the various approaches to Organisational behaviour?

Q11. Perception is the way we see and interpret things. Explain the importance of such ‘perception’. What are the factors affecting perception?

Q12. Give the definition and importance of ‘motivation’. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.

Q13. Describe the concept of vision in an organisation with an example. How is it different from mission statement?

Q14. Define the term ‘management’. Explain the scientific management theory proposed by Taylor

Q15. Define leadership. Differentiate between authoritarian and democratic leadership style.

Q16. Describe the concept of vision and mission in an organisation.

Q17. (a) Define planning.  (b) Explain the importance of planning.

Q18. (a) Why leading is important?

(b) What are the characteristics of leading?

Q19. (a) Define organisation behaviour (OB).  (b) What are the limitations of OB?

Q20. (a) What is meant by emotional intelligence?  (b) What is the impact of emotional intelligence on managers?

Q21. Suppose you are the Team Manager in a multinational company with team strength of 10 members. You are given the responsibility of ensuring that the team gives excellent performance or results. What are the key issues you have to handle in team building?

Q22. Define the term controlling. What are the pre-requisites of effective control?

Q23. Define leadership. Write a brief note on ‘Contingency Theories of Leadership’.

Q24. What do you mean by Span of Control? Differentiate between narrow span of control and wide span of control. Describe the factors that influence the span of control.

Q25. Define the term ‘personality’. Describe Cattell’s Personality Factor Model.

Q26. Discuss the contemporary theories of motivation.

Q27. What are the factors that affect group behaviour?

Q28. Define the term ‘leadership’. Write a brief note on “Contingency Theories of Leadership”

Q29. Discuss the principles of Management by Henri Fayol.

Q30. Discuss the pre-requisites of an Effective Control system.

Q31. Define Personality. Discuss the factors that determine personality development.

Q32. Discuss the concept of Attitude. Describe the components and functions of Attitude.

Q33. Discuss the three stages of Stress. Explain the reasons for stress.

Q34. Write short notes on the following:  a) TOWS matrix  b) Porter’s Five Forces model

Q35. What are the hindrances that we face in perception?

Q36. Explain sensitivity training.

Q37. Explain the different leadership styles as per Managerial – Leadership Grid Theory.

Q38.  Mr. Suresh Kumar is the VP- HR of a leading financial services company. He is having a meeting with Ms. Rejani Chandran leading HR consultant. Mr. Suresh is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. Assume that you are Ms. Rejani, the HR consultant. What suggestions you will give to Mr. Suresh, for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction?

Q39. State the characteristics of management

Q40. Explain the four processes of Social Learning Theory.

Q41. Ms. Chanchal Das Gupta is a recruitment specialist. For the post of QC Manager, she interviews three candidates. Given below are the physical characteristics of the candidates.

CANDIDATE Physical Characteristics
MR.  RAVI Muscular, thick skin, rectangular shaped
MR.  GINEESH Thin, delicate build, large brain, tall
MR.  RAMGOPAL Soft, round shaped, underdeveloped  muscles

From the above descriptions, what personality traits can Ms. Chanchal derive out of the candidates as per Sheldon’s theory of personality?

Q42. What are the factors that influences span of control?

Q43. What are the characteristics of an effective team?

Q44. What are the internal and external forces of organisational change?

Q45. Ms. Janice Alisha is a General Manager of Production in a company. She finds that there is a need to improve the motivation level of the employees. Suggest some of the motivational tools that she can use to improve employee motivation in her organisation.

Q48. List and describe the different strategies in the Organization.

Q49. What do you mean by Decision Making? Explain Decision making under certainty, uncertainty and risk. Describe the steps in Creative Decision making.

Q50. Perception is the way we see and interpret things. Explain the importance of such ‘perception’. What are the factors affecting perception?

Q51. Explain the concept of Management. Discuss the importance of Management.

Q52. Discuss the steps involved in the Planning process

Q53. What do you mean by Control? Explain the pre-requisites of an effective Control system

Q54. Discuss the concept of a Group. Explain the purpose of a Group. Discuss the types of Formal Groups

Q55. Discuss any ten characteristics of an Effective team

Q56. Write short notes on the following: a) Goleman’s Model of Emotional Intelligence  b) Fielder’s Contingency Model of Leadership

Q57. Briefly justify business as a social system.

Q58. What do you understand by vision statement?

Q59. What do you understand by strategy? Briefly explain functional strategy.

Q60. Explain the different types of structures found in organisation.

Q61. Define management.

Q62. Determine the importance of management.

Q63. Describe the evolution of management thought and explain the four principles of scientific management as proposed by Taylor.

Q64. What are the eight characteristics that are found in an excellent organisation? Which of these are applied in the case of Green Path hotels?

Q65. Explain the importance of principles of management.

Q66. Planning provides a logical framework within which a business can develop.

Q67. Planning can be classified based on level, importance, formality, approach, and time period.

Q68. Bounded rationality is important for managers to take a decision when all information is not available.

Q69. The steps involved in creative decision making are incubation, invitation, insight, verification.

Q70. Porter’s Model help in evaluating, planning and deciding a strategy.

Q71. Define organisation. Give any three reasons for why organising is important.

Q72. Organising is about creating an intentional structure of roles. Justify.

Q73. Differentiate between a formal organisation and an informal organisation.

Q73. Informal organisations synergise formal organisations and become a very important part of organisation. Justify with an example.

Q74. Identity the process of organising using a schematic diagram.

Q75. Describe a virtual organisation.

Q76. Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.

Q77. Trait theory states that people are born with leadership traits.

Q78. The major leadership styles are impoverished leadership, country club leadership, middle of the road, produce or perish leadership, team leadership.

Q79. Some of the qualities of a transformational leader are persistent, clear sense of purpose, strategic, risk taking etc.

Q80. Why do companies follow product based departmentation?

Q81. Staffing function and HR management are inseparable. Justify.

Q82. Leading is the process of setting direction, creating alignment and creating engagement to deliver high productivity and to facilitate change.

Q83. The major characteristics are pervasiveness, continuity, creativity, executive function, delegation.

Q84. Leading is important as it initiates and sustains action, integrates efforts, motivates and provides stability.
Q85. Major functions are setting direction, creating alignment and creating engagement.

Q86. Explain the controlling process.

Q87. Why is controlling important in management functions?

Q88. What are the components of formal power?

Q89. List the conflict management styles.

Q90. What are the types of negotiations?

Q91. Explain the causes for stress.

Q92. What are the different critical control points?

Q93. What are the prerequisites of effective control?

Q94. Elucidate the deductions from the Hawthorne experiments.

Q95. Differentiate between human resources approach and contingency approach.

Q96. Justify why OB is an important area of learning for a manager.

Q97. Define OB and explain the framework for learning OB.

Q98. Explain the intricate connection between MP and OB.

Q99. Define personality.

Q100. What are the factors determining personality?

Q101. Explain MBTI.

Q102. A team is any group of people organised to work together independently and cooperatively to meet a purpose of a goal.

Q103. Some of the characteristics of an effective group are clear purpose, shared leadership, consensus decision making etc.

Q104. Key issues in team building are having clear expectations, commitment, control and coordination etc.

Q105. It is a group of people with different functional expertise working towards a common goal.

Q106. Define perception and highlight some of its importance.

Q107. What are perceiver related factors that affect perception? Give examples.

Q108. In Israel, a famous experiment was conducted in the military. The class was divided into two sections on random basis. The instructor of Class A was told that his students were selected for their intelligence and military acumen but nothing was told to the instructor of Section B. At the end the evaluation of students of both sections were compared. Scores of Section A students were far higher than that of Section B. Can you explain the reason for it?

Q109. What are the types of national culture?

Q110. What are the components of attitude?

Q111. Describe emotional regulation.

Q112. Explain Goleman’s Model of Emotional Intelligence.

Q113. Learning is defined as “any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience.”

Q114. Operant conditioning is a form of learning where individuals modify their behaviour based on its consequence.

Q115. Managers need to know about motivation as the more motivated the employees are, the more empowered the team is.
Q116. Mc Clelland’s Theory of Needs focuses on these needs, namely achievement, power and affiliation.

Q117. Explain the concept of a group.

Q118. What are the types of formal groups?

Q119. What are the stages of group formation as proposed by Tuckman?

Q120. List the group decision making techniques.

Q121. Explain the concept of culture.

Q122. What are the social factors that lead to resistance to change?

Q123. Name the types of structure that could be found in an organisation

Q124. Explain lewin’s Model of Change.

Q125.What do you understand by Esprit de corps?

Q126.Why is ‘management’ important?

Q127.What do you understand by rational decision making?

Q128. What are the steps involved in Planning?  

Q129. Mention the various types of authority that exist in an organisation.

Q130. List the modern types of departmentation and where are they used?

Q131. Define leading.

Q132. Mention the three main functions of leading.

Q133. Define Six Sigma?

Q134. List any three quality control tools implemented in an organisation.

Q135. List the four main approaches to organisational behaviour (OB).

Q136. Mention two important limitations of organisational behaviour (OB).

Q137. Mention the factors that affect perception.

Q138. Mention the components of an attitude.

Q139. List the features of Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence.

Q140. List the three theories of learning?

Q141. List four motivational tools implemented by managers in an organisation.

Q142. Define group.

Q143. List some of the group decision making techniques.

Q144. Mention the different types of teams.

Q145. List the functions captured in the team wheel.

Q146. Define leadership.

Q147. List the two basic type of orientation in style.

Q148. List the four basic steps in the negotiation process?

Q149. List three stages in stress.

Q150. Mention the four distinct hypotheses on organisational culture.

Q151. Who proposed the basic model for change and what are the steps?

Q152. Discuss the characteristics of management.

Q153. Discuss the four management functions in brief.

Q154. Based on Katz’s proposition, briefly discus the essential managerial skills.

Q155. Explain the managerial activities listed by Luthans.

Q156. Discuss the level of analysis.

Q157. Explain Fayol’s administrative theory.

Q158. What is Weber’s ideal bureaucratic structure?

Q159. Write a note on contributing disciplines in the OB field.

Q160. Explain the classical conditioning theory and social learning theory.

Q161. Describe the four methods of shaping behavior.

Q162. Briefly explain the different types of reinforcement schedules.

Q163. Explain the biographical characteristics.

Q164. Briefly explain the different views about conflict.

Q165. What are the levels of conflict that people may experience at the workplace?

Q166. Explain the process of conflict management.

Q167. Explain the difference between distributive and integrative bargaining.

Q168. Discuss the bases of power.

Q169. Explain empowerment.

Q170. Explain Maccoby’s Four Political Types

Q171. Discuss the trait theory of leadership in detail.

Q172. Explain Leadership Grid.

Q173. Write a note on Lewin’s Leadership styles.

Q174. Describe transformational leadership

Q175. What is Rokeach Value Survey- RVS? Explain the values described in this survey.

Q176. Discuss Contemporary work cohort.

Q177. Write a note on Attitude and characteristics of attitude.

Q178. Discuss the important factors conductive to job satisfaction.

Q179. Compare Maslow’s hierarchy of needs with Alderfer’s ERG theory.

Q170. Explain goal setting theory.

Q181. What is organizational justice? Discuss various types of organizational justice.

Q182. Explain the concept of MBO and QC

Q183. Discuss the characteristics of OD.

Q184. Explain the process of OD.

Q185. Describe the survey feedback intervention.

Q186. Discuss the problems in OD

Q187. What are the forces for change? Explain.

Q188. Explain the different types of resistance to change.

Q189. Describe the force field analysis model and action research model.

Q190. Based on the toolkit forwarded by Nicklos stated in this chapter, explain how one can manage change.

Q191. Define stress. Explain various types of stress.

Q192. Describe the potential sources of stress.

Q193. What are the consequences of stress?

Q194. Discus the individual and organizational approaches to managing stress.

Q195. Discuss the various types of organizational crises

Q196. Explain the five-stage model of group development.

Q197. Explain the group structure

Q198. Describe the techniques on group decision making.

Q199. Explain different types of teams.

Q200. Describe the determinants of personality.

Q201. Explain The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

Q202. Explain the personality dimensions mentioned in big five model.

Q203. Explain Type A and Type B personality.

Q204. Based on Holland’s approach, explain personality-job-fit.

Q205. Explain Kelley’s attribution theory.

Q206. Explain Halo effect and contrast effect with examples.

Q207. Describe the rational decision making process.

Q208. What is bounded rationality?

Q209. Briefly explain Lazarus’ appraisal theory and Weiner’s attribution theory.

Q210. What are universally recognized emotions?

Q211. What is Alexithymia? What are the symptoms of this disease?

Q212. What is the relationship of gender with emotion?

Q213. Explain Goleman’s emotional intelligence model.

Q214. Personality is the dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person.

Q215. The factors determining personality are heredity, environment, culture, family situation and social factors.

Q216. MBTI is a testable personality trait model that classifies human beings based on four categories of opposite pairs.

Q217. Perception is the process of interpreting sensory impressions to give meaning to environment.

Q218. Some of the perceiver related factors are attitudes, motives, interests, experiences, moods, self-concept etc.

Q219. Scores of Section A students were higher due to Pygmation effect.

Q220. Organisation is important as it clarifies authority, creates roles and facilitates specialisation.

Q221. Organising links a person to an activity with its own set of responsibility.

Q222. Formal and informal organisation differs in terms of the conscious effort involved.

Q223. When people work together for achieving organisational goals social ties are formed that creates co-operation for achieving the goals.

Q224. Organising involves identification and classification of activities, its grouping, and delegation of authority and co-ordination of authority.

Q225. Virtual organisations are those primarily connected by information technology.

Q226. Product based departmentation is carried out in large companies that have homogeneous products.

Q227. All HR management functions are derived from the concept of staffing.

Q228. Process of controlling includes establishment of standards, measurement of performance, comparison of actual and standard performance and taking remedial action.

Q229. Controlling is important because it keeps goals on track and creates the basis for the future.

Q230. The different control points are physical standards, cost and capital standards, revenue standards, programme standards, intangible standards etc.

Q231. Some of the prerequisites of effective control are flexibility, fitting to the organisation culture, tailoring controls to plans, positions and to the individual managers.

Q232. Business is something that society has created for itself to make things simpler to fulfill its needs and wants. The society exercises control over business by changing rules of business.

Q233. Vision is the state that an organsiation wants to be in and mission is the way of doing it.

Q234. Strategy is the broad plan through which the organisation achieves its vision. It may be divided into corporate strategy, functional strategy and business strategy.

Q235. The different types of structures found in organisation are flat, simple, hierarchical, adhocracy, matrix, and team.

Q236. Impact of social and psychological factors, informal relations on the workers productivity are some of the learning from Hawthorne experiments.

Q237. HR approach was focused on growth and development of people to higher levels of competency and fulfillment. Contingency approach implied different behavioural practices in different situations.

Q238. OB helps managers to learn individual differences affecting individual and group productivity, motivating factors etc.

Q239. Organisational Behaviour is the systematic study of individual, group and organizational factors on productivity, effectiveness and efficiency.

Q240. Management process focuses on getting the work done and OB focuses on the individual, group and organizational factors affecting productivity.

Q241. The types of national culture are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity femininity.

Q242. The major components of attitude are cognition, affect and behaviour.

Q243. Emotional Regulation refers to the process of modifying one’s own emotions and expressions.

Q244. Daniel Goleman identified a set of competencies that differentiates individuals with EI. He viewed EI as a sum of personal and social competencies.

Q245. The components are coercive power, reward power, legitimate power and information power.

Q246. Conflict management styles are competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, accommodating.

Q247. The two types of negotiations are direct negotiations and third party negotiations.

Q248. Some of the causes for stress are inner conflicts, role demands, task demand etc.

Q249. Organisational culture is the collective behaviour of people in an organization formed by values, beliefs etc.

Q250. External forces of change are economic, social, political, legal and technological environment.

Q251. The social factors are the desire to maintain existing social interaction and feeling of outside interference.

Q252. Lewin’s model of change proposed three steps in change process – unfreezing, change and refreeze.

Q253. Explain the following Management thoughts and name the person(s) who propounded these theories:

  1. a) Scientific Management theory
  2. b) Operational Management theory

Q254. Shyama is the Accounts Manager of ANC company. She has 6 accounts officers reporting to her. Recently, she found that her team is losing on its unity and there were also instances where team members were seen talking to each other angrily and walking out of the cabin. What are the conflict management styles available for managers? Which style would you suggest Ms. Shyama to adopt to manage conflict in her team?

 

Q255. (a) Describe the leadership style that followed by Mr. Rishikesh.  (b) Also discuss the effects of such a leadership style on an organization.

Q256. (a) If you were in Mr. Rishikesh’s position what leadership style would you adopt?

 (b) From the case given, describe the importance of leadership in organisations.

Q257. Case Study: Read the following case study thoroughly and answer the questions:

Ravi Kiran works as a Medical Representative for the city branch of a leading pharmaceutical company. He is hard working and has a very pleasing personality that impresses most of the doctors and customers that he meets. The company set the monthly targets for each medical representative in terms of the number of new customers and the total volume of sales to be achieved. Representatives who achieve the monthly targets are eligible for the special sales incentives, the only lucrative monetary benefit offered by the company. Ravi was lagging behind his targets for the past seven months. Although Ravi has achieved 97% of the target set this month, he knew that he would cut a sorry figure and the Regional Manager would not take him at face value. The last time round he had committed to the Regional Manager that he would ensure that the targets were met.

Mr.Rishikesh, Regional Manager, liked to be in total control of any situation. He considered himself to be very knowledgeable and does not entertain suggestions and ideas from his team members. He believed in issuing instructions to the subordinates and expected them to follow his instructions. He kept an eye on the performance of his 12-member team of sales representatives throughout the twelve-odd hours that they work. He expected his team members to keep him informed about their progress on any target on an hourly basis even when they were on the field.

The targets, in terms of the volumes and number of contacts were scaled up consistently and were so high that achieving them seemed a difficult task.

After mailing the monthly reports, Ravi went into Rishikesh’s room only to be given a strong warning that if the achievement of targets for the month ahead was also below expectations, it would cost him his job. Most of his colleagues too had a similar experience to narrate after they had submitted their monthly report.

The next day Rishikesh called for a meeting, where he described in detail how he had worked when he was in their position such as carrying as many medical flashcards of the new products as possible and carrying most of the samples and so forth. The team members who had listen to the same strategies many times before, suggested some new ideas such as carrying a tablet pc that has all the information of medicines stored in different folders based on specializations so that they can quickly display the latest products based on the specialization and interest of the doctors and offering a sample dispenser box with the company logo to the doctors that can be placed on their table which will serve as a strong reminder of their products. However, as usual Rishikesh

ignored these suggestions and went ahead with his strategies. The team felt demotivated and dejected after the meeting.

 

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