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Management Information System Descriptive Model Question Papers.
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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
Q1. Professor A. Van Cauwenbergh………………..
- If these revisions are correct, how is planning to be organized?
- How should the information system support the planning organization?
a. The organizational planning process with diagram
The aspect of architecture, the hardware specification, the details of software to be developed, the language, the nature of users and the numbers of users spread over the different location, the network topology are vital inputs that go into the planning the development of an MIS.
1) Development of long-range plans of the MIS: In the early days of computing, people viewed computers as costly instruments, which occupied large space. The computers processed data and generated reports for filing statutory returns.
2) Contents of the MIS plan: Any plan is a blueprint for the construction of a system. It will clearly specify the steps to build the desired MIS system.
3) MIS goals and objectives: The MIS goals and objectives should be in relation to management philosophy, policy constraints, business risks, internal and external environment of the organisation and the business.
b. Guidelines for planning MIS
MIS planning guidelines help MIS executives to:
- Make provisions in the systems
- Carry out alternative plans as recognised in the objectives.
- Compare the system’s plan with the organisation’s plan and ensure changes accordingly.
- Format the plans of the system, document them and present to top management.
- Construct a tool or technique for reviewing or altering if required.
- Formulate a system for processing the collected data.
- Allot the responsibility and authority for planning.
- Allot finance for this purpose.
- Formulate a team of technical personnel to compare the effectiveness of the system.
Comparing MIS plan and Business Plan
|Business plan||MIS plan|
|1. Business goals, business plan and strategy.||1. Management information system – Objectives are consistent with the business goals and objectives.|
|2. The management plan for execution and control. Operation Plan for the execution.|
a) The architecture of the Management Information System to support decisions.
b) System development schedule, matching the plan execution.
c) Hardware and software plan for the procurement and the implementation
The significant problem of the Lewis model
The significant problem in this model is the resistance to change. The resistance can occur due to three reasons, which are the internal factors, design factors and users attitude. Users resist change as they are habituated to the system. If they are asked to use another system which they are not familiar with, then opposition emerges. It is here, that education, training and motivation will help.
Q2. Information Technology and Computers have brought information age. The spread of Internet & relative ease of access made Information Breach easier. Our future is not secure if our information is not secure. Information Resources need to be guarded, protected and controlled. List the precautionary measures to be considered to prevent cybercrime?
Ans: There are following five measures to prevent cybercrime explained below:
- Keep your computer updated with the latest security software
Just like it is necessary to lock your front door at home, it is to ensure your computer is secure by installing anti-virus, anti-spyware and a firewall, or a package including all three. Ensure that you regularly install new updates when they become available, otherwise hackers will exploit any existing flaws to break into your system. Take advantage of ‘auto-update’ features to ensure you receive the updates as soon as they are created. Prevent viruses from infecting your computer by installing and regularly updating anti-virus software.
- Be responsible when using passwords online
Passwords are a necessary security measure to perform various functions on the internet. If used and chosen improperly, they can make an internet user very vulnerable to attacks. When required to select a password, make sure you choose a secure password that:
- Has at least eight characters or more (with a combination of letters, numbers and symbols if possible)
- Is not related to personal information such as birthdays or login names
- Is not the same password you use for other internet functions
- Keep your personal information protected
Many online services require you to enter at least some personal information on a website. Before doing so ensure that the website is, in fact, authentic – for instance, a shopping or banking website requiring sensitive information should begin with ‘https://www’, with the extra ‘s’ standing for ‘secure.’ Also, read the privacy policies of websites, and understand how the website may use or share your personal information in the future.
- Keep an eye out for suspicious e-mails
If an e-mail displays any of the following, approach it with care:
- Poor grammar or odd phrasing
- A suspicious website address – such as an address made up of predominantly numbers rather than words
- Instructions requiring you to provide information (particularly e-mails which ask you to provide details quickly to avoid something bad happening).
- Avoid being scammed
Always think before you click on a link or file of unknown origin. Don’t feel pressured by any emails. Check the source of the message. When in doubt, verify the source. Never reply to emails that ask you to verify your information or confirm your user ID or password.
a. While implementing MIS in any organization change can occur in the number of ways.
List and explain the steps in the process as suggested by Lewin’s model.
Ans: Kurt Lewin developed a change model involving three steps: unfreezing, changing and refreezing. The model represents a very simple and practical model for understanding the change process.
- Unfreezing: Before you can cook a meal that has been frozen, you need to defrost or thaw it out. The same can be said of the change. Before a change can be implemented, it must go through the initial step of unfreezing.
- Changing: Now that the people are ‘unfrozen’ they can begin to move. Lewin recognized that change is a process where the organization must transition or move into this new state of being. This changing step, also referred to as ‘transitioning’ or ‘moving,’ is marked by the implementation of the change. This is when the change becomes real. It’s also, consequently, the time that most people struggle with the new reality.
- Refreezing: Lewin called the final stage of his change model freezing, but many refer to it as refreezing to symbolize the act of reinforcing, stabilizing and solidifying the new state after the change. The changes made to organizational processes, goals, structure, offerings or people are accepted and refrozen as the new norm or status quo. Lewin found the refreezing step to be especially important to ensure that people do not revert back to their old ways of thinking or doing prior to the implementation of the change.
b. Compare between the prototype approach and the Life Cycle approach
Ans: There are following types of comparisons between the prototype approach and the Life Cycle approach explained below:
The basic difference in the two approaches is that the Life Cycle approach is more rigid compared to the Prototyping approach.
In prototyping, we use an evolutionary approach while in Life Cycle approach we have a sort of linear, conventional approach.
While the Life Cycle approach is linear, the prototype model is non-linear and evolutionary in nature. Both processes have their merits and demerits. According to experts, the prototype model is well suited for online applications where user interfaces are the most important component and clients are not clear about what they exactly need in the final product.
On the other hand, the Life Cycle approach is better suited for more conventional software projects, where user requirements are clear, right from the start. A prototype model ensures users involvement which makes last-minute changes possible. The waterfall model makes it difficult to implement any changes suggested by the user, after initial specification.
Q4. There is an information explosion in today’s society. There are a lot of advantages of DBMS like proper maintenance of the data and maintaining security. Explain the process of data transition using diagram and an example of your own.
Q5. Write a short note on
- World wide web
- Voice over IP
Q6. The artificially intelligent system functions as a human being and helps a manager in taking quick decisions. Explain the different applications AI using the diagram.
Q7. A waiter takes an order at a table, and then enters it online via one of the six terminals located in the restaurant dining room. The order is routed to a printer in the appropriate preparation area, the cold item printer if it is a salad, the hot item printer if it is a hot sandwich or the bar printer if it is a drink. A customer’s meal check-listing bills the items ordered and the respective prices are automatically generated. This ordering system eliminates the old three-carbon-copy guest check system as well as any problems caused by a waiter’s handwriting. When the kitchen runs out of a food item, the cooks send out an ‘out of stock’ message, which will be displayed on the dining room terminals when waiters try to order that item. This gives the waiters faster feedback, enabling them to give better service to the customers. Other system features aid management in the planning and control of their restaurant business. The system provides up-to-the-minute information on the food items ordered and breaks out percentages showing sales of each item versus total sales. This helps management plan menus according to customers’ tastes. The system also compares the weekly sales totals versus food costs, allowing planning for tighter cost controls. In addition, whenever an order is invalidated, the reasons for the invalidation are keyed in. This may help later in management decisions, especially if the invalidations are consistently related to the food or the service. Acceptance of the system by the users is exceptionally high since the waiters and waitresses were involved in the selection and design process. All potential users were asked to give their impressions and ideas about the various systems available before one was chosen.
- What is the type of information system the above scenario is referring to?
- How does this system helps later in management decisions related to food or service based on the reasons for the invalidation which are stored
- How this system does help in finding out the performance of the hotel form year to year?
Q8. a. With the increase in technology, the business processes have been frequently changed and modified based on the upcoming requirement of the organization. What is this type of concept called as?
b. Explain reverse engineering. How do you improve a process in BPR
Q9. Quality is abstract in nature. It varies among users and across industries. List and explain the quality parameters with suitable examples. Also, explain the effect of each quality parameters on information processing.
Q10. Write short notes on
- Neural Networks
- B2B model
- DSS Models
- Administrative control
- Distributed database
Q11. A project is composed of 9 activities the three estimates of time in weeks for the activities are given below in the following table.
|Activity||Immediate predecessors||Optimistic time||Most like time duration||Pessimistic time|
- Draw a PERT Network
- Determine the expected time and variance for each activity
- Determine the earliest and latest occurrence time of each event
- Determine the critical path for the network
Q12. Explain the DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement is determined for an organization?
Q13. What is MIS? Define the characteristics of MIS? What are the basic Functions of MIS? Give some Disadvantage of MIS?
Q14. Explain the Knowledge-based system? Explain DSS and OLAP with example?
Q15. What is Value Chain Analysis & describe its significance in MIS? Explain what is meant by BPR? What is its significance? How Data warehousing & Data mining is useful in terms of MIS?
Q16. Distinguish between a closed decision-making system & open decision-making system? What is ‘what-if analysis? Why is more time spend in problem analysis & problem definition as compared to the time spends on decision analysis? 10 marks (350-400 words)
Q17. What is ERP? Explain its existence before and it is future after? What are the advantages & Disadvantages of ERP? What is Artificial Intelligence? How is it different from Neural Networks?
Q18. In the current e-world, any organisation’s massive operations are managed by various types of information systems that help them to achieve their goals of servicing their clients. This can be done by the growth of the modern organization. Discuss some of the essential features of modern organization
Q19. Marketing managers are keener to look for a least-cost route that also allows a salesperson to meet all his customers. Identifying a least-cost route with these features is slightly complicated. Therefore, managers depend on decision support tools to find the most cost-effective routes to cover the market. The travelling salesman problem is one such tool. Describe the tool with a diagram.
Q20. There are many examples of digital goods. Companies such as Amazon.com are selling digital versions of books over their site. These digital books can be read on special readers that display the pages on a screen.
- List the important properties of information goods
- Explain positive feedback with diagrams
Q21. Decision support systems (DSS) are used extensively across organizations to assist managers with making decisions. Decision making by managers involves the phases of intelligence, design, and choice, and DSS help mainly with the choice part as they support structured and unstructured types of decisions.
- What is it that managers do when they make decisions?
- Explain the different types of decisions
Q22. What is crowdsourcing? How does the site Galaxy Zoo manage to crowdsource?
Q23. Data and information relating to individuals could be of a sensitive nature. Give some examples of such kind of data
Q24. In the current e-world, any organization’s massive operations are managed by various types of information systems that help them to achieve their goals of servicing their clients. This can be done by the growth of the modern organization. Discuss some of the essential features of modern organization.
Q24. In today’s life, Individuals rely on information systems, generally Internet-based, for conducting much of their personal lives: for socializing, study, shopping, banking, and entertainment. Information technology refers to anything related to computing technology, such as networking, hardware, software, the Internet, or the people that work with these technologies. How do you differentiate between the information system and information technology? Explain using an example.
Q25. Explain decision making with MIS using Travelling salesman problem
Q26. How to use an information system to support competitive strategy? Explain with an example for each strategy
Q27. Decision making is a daily activity for any human being. In the decision-making process, we choose one course of action from a few possible alternatives. In the process of decision making, we may use many tools, techniques and perceptions. Describe Herbert Simon model on Decision making.
Q28. Write short notes on
- Data administration
- Managing concurrency
- Reduced data redundancy
- Recovery from crashes
- Data access
Q29. Write short notes on
- Role of workplace monitoring
- Power over users
Q30. Explain some of the essential features of the modern organisation
Q31. a. Explain First-order and second-order effects
b. Distinguish between hierarchy and matrix organisational structures
Q32. Briefly explain the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system. What are the various facilities created by CRM?
Q33. Briefly explain the different aspects of the need for database systems.
Q34. Write short notes on
- Centralised IT management
- Decentralised IT management
Q35. Explain the various behavioural factors of management organization? As per Porter, how can the performance of individual corporations be determined?
Q36. Case Study: Information system in a restaurant.
Q37. What do you understand by service level agreements (SLAs)? Why are they needed? What is the role of CIO in drafting these? Explain the various security hazards faced by an IS?
Q38. How hardware & software support in various MIS activities of the organization? Explain the transaction stages from a manual system to automated systems?
Q39. Compare & Contrast E-enterprise business model with traditional business organization model? Explain how in E-enterprise manager role & responsibilities are changed? Explain how the manager is a knowledge worker in E-enterprise?