Human Resource Management Model Papers MCQs with Answers

Human Resource Management Model Papers MCQs with Answers – Job Analysis and the Talent Management Process

 Human Resources Management


Human Resources Management – Job Analysis and the Talent Management Process

1) Which term refers to the integrated process of recruiting, developing, supervising, and compensating employees?
A) Job analysis
B) HR alignment
C) Strategic planning
D) Talent management
Answer: D

2) Connor, a manager at boat manufacturing firm, takes a talent management approach to his duties. Which of the following would Connor most likely do?
A) Coordinate recruitment and compensation activities
B) Use different competencies for recruitment and development
C) Rely primarily on applicant testing results for hiring decisions
D) Manage employees based on their experience with the organization
Answer: A

3) Which of the following terms refers to the procedure used to determine the duties associated with job positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for those positions?
A) Job description
B) Job specification
C) Job analysis
D) Job context
Answer: C

4) The information resulting from a job analysis is used for writing ________.
A) Job descriptions
B) Corporate objectives
C) Personnel questionnaires
D) Training requirements
Answer: A

5) All of the following types of information will most likely be collected by a human resources specialist through a job analysis EXCEPT ________.
A) Work activities
B) Human behaviors
C) Performance standards
D) Employee benefits options
Answer: D

6) A manager uses the information in a job analysis for all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) Assessing training requirements
B) Complying with FCC regulations
C) Determining appropriate compensation
D) Providing accurate performance appraisals
Answer: B

7) Which of the following most likely depends on a job’s required skills, education level, safety hazards, and degree of responsibility?
A) Employee compensation
B) Organizational culture
C) Annual training requirements
D) OSHA and EEO compliance
Answer: A

8) In order for Hollis Construction to be in full compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, the manager needs a ________ for each position to validate all human resource activities.
A) Performance appraisal
B) Compensation schedule
C) Workflow system
D) Job analysis
Answer: D

9) Allison, a manager at large clothing retail store, needs to determine essential duties that have not been assigned to specific employees. Which of the following would most likely provide Allison with this information?
A) Work activities
B) Job context
C) Job analysis
D) Performance standards
Answer: C

10) The _______ lists a job’s specific duties as well as the skills and training needed to perform a particular job.
A) Organization chart
B) Job analysis
C) Work aid
D) Job description
Answer: D

11) Jennifer, a manager at an engineering firm, has been assigned the task of conducting a job analysis. What should be Jennifer’s first step in the process?
A) Deciding how the gathered information will be used
B) Collecting data on job activities and working conditions
C) Selecting representative job positions to assess
D) Reviewing relevant background information
Answer: A

12) Which of the following data collection techniques would be most useful when writing a job description for a software engineer?
A) Distributing position analysis questionnaires
B) Interviewing employees
C) Analyzing organization charts
D) Developing a job process chart
Answer: B

13) Which of the following is a written statement that describes the activities, responsibilities, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities of a job?
A) Job specification
B) Job analysis
C) Job description
D) Job context
Answer: C

14) Which of the following refers to the human requirements needed for a job, such as education, skills, and personality?
A) Job specifications
B) Job analysis
C) Job placement
D) Job descriptions
Answer: A

15) All of the following requirements are typically addressed in job specifications EXCEPT ________.
A) Desired personality traits
B) Required education levels
C) Necessary experience
D) Working conditions
Answer: D

16) Which of the following indicates the distribution of work within a firm and the lines of authority and communication?
A) Process chart
B) Employee matrix
C) Organization chart
D) Corporate overview
Answer: C

17) A (n) ________ shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a job being analyzed.
A) Organization chart
B) Process chart
C) Job analysis
D) Job description
Answer: B

18) A workflow analyst would most likely focus on which of the following?
A) Methods used by the firm to accomplish tasks
B) Behaviors needed to complete specific work
C) A single, identifiable work process
D) A quantifiable worker skill
Answer: C

19) Which of the following best describes business process reengineering?
A) Using computerized systems to combine separate tasks
B) Creating a visual chart for work flow procedures
C) Assigning additional activities to new employees
D) Developing employee skills and behaviors
Answer: A

20) During the job analysis process, it is most important to ________ before collecting data about specific job duties and working conditions.
A) Test job questionnaires on a small group of workers
B) Confirm the job activity list with employees
C) Select a sample of similar jobs to analyze
D) Assemble the job specifications list
Answer: C

21) The fourth step in conducting a job analysis most likely involves collecting data about all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) Required employee abilities
B) Typical working conditions
C) Employee turnover rates
D) Specific job activities
Answer: C

22) While performing the fifth step of a job analysis, it is essential to confirm the validity of collected data with the ________.
A) EEOC representative
B) HR manager
C) Legal department
D) Worker
Answer: D

23) During the job analysis process, the primary purpose of having workers review and modify data collected about their current positions is to ________.
A) Confirm that the information is correct and complete
B) Provide a legal benchmark for employer lawsuits
C) Encourage employees to seek additional job training
D) Validate the job specification list provided by HR
Answer: A

24) What is the final step in conducting a job analysis?
A) Writing a job description and job specifications
B) Validating all of the collected job data
C) Collecting data on specific job activities
D) Reviewing relevant background information
Answer: A

25) Murray, Inc. emphasizes a desire for detail-oriented, motivated employees with strong social skills as indicated in the firm’s job ________.
A) Specifications
B) Analysis
C) Reports
D) Descriptions
Answer: A

26) The primary drawback of performing a job analysis regards the ________.
A) Unverifiable data a job analysis typically provides
B) Certification required conducting a job analysis
C) Amount of time a job analysis takes to complete
D) Redundant information gathered during a job analysis
E) Costs associated with the technology needed for a job analysis
Answer: C

27) Which of the following guidelines is most likely recommended to managers conducting a job analysis?
A) Use one tool for gathering information to maintain the validity of the final results.
B) Rely on the human resource manager to complete questionnaires and verify data.
C) Conduct group interviews without supervisors present to ensure accuracy.
D) Ensure that the questions and the process are clarified to employees.
Answer: D

28) Which method for collecting job analysis information is considered best for quantifying the relative worth of a job for compensation purposes?
A) Electronic log
B) Worker diary
C) Observation
D) Questionnaire
Answer: D

29) Jerome, a manager at an electronics company, needs to gather job analysis information from a large number of employees who perform similar work. Which of the following would be most appropriate for Jerome?
A) Observing all employees
B) Interviewing the HR manager
C) Holding group interview with a supervisor
D) Conducting telephone surveys of all employees
Answer: C

30) Which of the following is the primary disadvantage of using interviews to collect job analysis data?
A) Interviews are a complicated method for collecting information.
B) Employees may exaggerate or minimize some information.
C) Interviews provide only general information about a worker’s duties.
D) Interviews may require managers to reveal the job analysis function.
Answer: B

31) Interviews for the purpose of collecting job analysis data will most likely address all of the following topics EXCEPT ________.
A) Hazardous conditions
B) Primary work duties
C) Required education
D) Personal hobbies
Answer: D

32) Job analysts collecting information through observations and interviews benefit from the use of a (n) ________ to guide the process and ensure consistency.
A) Structured list
B) Electronic diary
C) Job description
D) Organization chart
Answer: A

33) Which of the following is the primary disadvantage of using questionnaires to gather job analysis information?
A) Questionnaires are the most expensive method of collecting data.
B) Supervisors are required to verify all collected questionnaire data.
C) Questionnaires are too open-ended for statistical information.
D) Developing and testing questionnaires is time-consuming.
Answer: D

34) For which of the following jobs is direct observation NOT a recommended method for collecting job analysis data?
A) assembly-line worker
B) Accounting clerk
C) Attorney
D) Nurse
Answer: C

35) One of the problems with direct observation is ________, which is when workers alter their normal activities because they are being watched.
A) Flexibility
B) Falsification
C) Reactivity
D) Diversion
Answer: C

36) A ________ is the time it takes to complete a job.
A) Work cycle
B) Work week
C) Shift
D) Duty
Answer: A

37) Which data collection method is most frequently used in conjunction with direct observation?
A) Interview
B) Questionnaire
C) Electronic log
D) Survey
Answer: A

38) Which of the following requires workers to make daily listings of the activities in which they engage as well as the amount of time each activity takes?
A) flowchart
B) Agenda
C) Outline
D) Log
Answer: D

39) Joaquin records every activity in which he participates at work along with the time it takes him to complete each activity. Which of the following approaches to job analysis data collection is most likely being used at Joaquin’s workplace?
A) Diaries
B) Interviews
C) Observations
D) Questionnaires
Answer: A

40) Pocket dictating machines and pagers have replaced traditional diary/log methods in many firms. Which of the following problems have the modern methods most likely eliminated?
A) Work time required to fill out forms and surveys
B) Employee forgetfulness regarding daily activities
C) Costs associated with copying and filing paperwork
D) Employee frustration towards bureaucratic requirements
Answer: B

41) Purrfect Pets is a local pet supply store with a following of loyal customers who appreciate the personal service the store’s employees provide. After a very profitable year, Purrfect Pets is expanding by opening two more stores. Before hiring employees for the new stores, the manager is considering the idea of conducting a job analysis for each position.
Which of the following, if true, would best support the argument that the manager should conduct group interviews to gather job analysis information?
A) Purrfect Pets is an excellent place to work because of the positive work environment.
B) Most of the young employees of Purrfect Pets would feel awkward during a one-on-one interview.
C) Employees at Purrfect Pets work well with their colleagues, and few staffing conflicts occur.
D) Numerous employees at Purrfect Pets perform similar tasks during the work day.
Answer: D

42) Purrfect Pets is a local pet supply store with a following of loyal customers who appreciate the personal service the store’s employees provide. After a very profitable year, Purrfect Pets is expanding by opening two more stores. Before hiring employees for the new stores, the manager is considering the idea of conducting a job analysis for each position.
Which of the following, if true, would best support the argument that the manager should use a position analysis questionnaire to collect job analysis information?
A) Compliance with EEO laws requires businesses to compile quantitative data.
B) Management wants to develop a pay scale for all employees at Purrfect Pets.
C) Purrfect Pets managers are unfamiliar with the typical routines of most employees.
D) Managers believe that some Purrfect Pets employees are overlooking important daily tasks.
Answer: B

43) Purrfect Pets is a local pet supply store with a following of loyal customers who appreciate the personal service the store’s employees provide. After a very profitable year, Purrfect Pets is expanding by opening two more stores. Before hiring employees for the new stores, the manager is considering the idea of conducting a job analysis for each position.
Which of the following, if true, undermines the argument that the Purrfect Pets manager should observe workers in order to gather job analysis information?
A) Purrfect Pets lacks the technology to perform quantitative job assessments.
B) Part-time and seasonal workers fill most of the positions at Purrfect Pets.
C) The tasks of most Purrfect Pets employees vary widely from day to day.
D) During the morning, business at Purrfect Pets typically slows down.
Answer: C

44) What is the primary benefit of using a position analysis questionnaire to gather data for a job analysis?
A) Providing the opportunity for employees to vent job frustrations
B) Sorting information for government statistics and records
C) Classifying jobs for the purpose of assigning salaries
D) Uncovering important yet infrequent job tasks
Answer: C

45) A (n) ________ is used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs.
A) Electronic diary/log
B) Group interview
C) Position analysis questionnaire
D) Internet-based survey
Answer: C

46) Experts at the ________ performed the earliest form of job analysis and published the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
Answer: B

47) What are the three main categories used in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to rate, classify, and compare different jobs?
A) Reasoning, language, mathematics
B) Skills, communication, education
C) Data, people, things
D) People, skills, reasoning
Answer: C

48) The Department of Labor procedure uses a set of standard basic activities known as ________ to describe what a worker must do with respect to data, people, and things.
A) Worker functions
B) Employee duties
C) Job procedures
D) Job requirements
Answer: A

49) What has been the most significant impact of modern technology on job analysis methods?
A) Extensive use of the Internet by HR managers enables more people to telecommute from locations far from corporate headquarters.
B) Corporate use of the Internet and intranet has enabled HR managers to distribute and collect job analysis surveys to employees in multiple geographic locations.
C) Worker functions have changed as a result of modern technology, so the DOL procedure for data collection has been modified and categories have been altered.
D) The ability to falsify information on Internet surveys has led to an increase in interviews and observations by HR managers to collect accurate job analysis information.
Answer: B

50) the most important consideration when developing an online job analysis is to ________.
A) Make questions and the process as clear as possible
B) Provide monetary rewards for timely completion
C) Limit the number of questions to less than twenty
D) Ask open-ended questions to ensure honest responses
Answer: A

51) Most job descriptions contain sections that cover all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) Performance standards
B) Working conditions
C) Responsibilities
D) Required overtime
Answer: D

52) Which of the following is the primary source of information an employer uses to write a job specification?
A) job summary
B) job description
C) performance standards
D) personnel replacement charts
Answer: B

53) What type of information is contained in the job identification section of a job description?
A) job title
B) job summary
C) major functions or activities
D) standards of performance
Answer: A

54) Which of the following is identified by the FLSA status section of a job description?
A) whether the employer is a non-profit organization
B) whether a job is exempt or nonexempt
C) whether the employer is a private or public firm
D) whether a job requires a college degree
Answer: B

55) The ________ classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs that are subdivided into minor groups of jobs and detailed occupations.
A) Department of Labor Procedure
B) Position Analysis Questionnaire
C) Standard Occupational Classification
D) Dictionary of Occupational Titles
Answer: C

56) According to the ________, an individual must have the requisite skills, educational background, and experience to perform a job’s essential functions.
Answer: B

57) An employer is required to make a “reasonable accommodation” for a disabled individual in which of the following situations?
A) if a disabled person has the necessary skills, education, and experience to perform the job but is prevented by the job’s current structure
B) when an employer fails to provide a job description for a position that a disabled person would most likely be able to perform
C) if making changes would present the employer with an undue hardship
D) each time that a disabled individual applies for a position
Answer: A

58) According to the ADA, job duties that employees must be able to perform, with or without reasonable accommodation, are called ________.
A) job requirements
B) essential job functions
C) work activities
D) job specifications
Answer: B

59) Which of the following Web sites was developed by the U.S. Department of Labor and serves as a source for managers who need to write job descriptions?
Answer: D

60) Janice, a department store manager, is in the process of writing job descriptions using O*NET. Janice has already reviewed the company’s business plan, so what should be her next step?
A) interview employees
B) compose a list of job duties
C) develop an organization chart
D) observe employees performing their duties
Answer: C

61) When a sales job is being filled by an untrained individual, the job specifications list will most likely include ________ as a way to predict which candidate will perform the job well.
A) age and gender
B) past job performance
C) relevant certification
D) personality traits
Answer: D

62) According to research, each of the following work behaviors is considered important in all jobs EXCEPT ________.
A) attendance
B) experience
C) schedule flexibility
D) industriousness
Answer: B

63) Job ________ means assigning workers additional same-level activities.
A) enrichment
B) assignment
C) enlargement
D) rotation
Answer: C

64) Which of the following terms refers to systematically moving workers from one job to another?
A) Job rotation
B) Job enrichment
C) Job enlargement
D) Job adjustment
Answer: A

65) Which of the following terms refers to redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition?
A) Job rotation
B) Job enrichment
C) Job reengineering
D) Job enlargement
Answer: B

66) Who argued that the best way to motivate workers is to build opportunities for challenge and achievement into their jobs via job enrichment?
A) Adam Smith
B) Frederick Taylor
C) Frederick Herzberg
D) Abraham Maslow
Answer: C

67) Jack is an employee at a Best Western Hotel. Some weeks he works with the catering group, and other weeks he assists the reservations clerk or the parking attendant. This is an example of ________.
A) job enlargement
B) job rotation
C) job enrichment
D) job specialization
Answer: B

68) The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in performance is called ________.
A) job redesign
B) reengineering
C) process engineering
D) job enlargement
Answer: B

69) Which of the following describes a job in terms of measurable and observable behaviors that an employee doing the job must exhibit to do the job well?
A) competency-based job analysis
B) Department of Labor procedure
C) functional job analysis
D) high-performance work matrix
Answer: A

70) Which of the following questions will most likely be addressed by a manager who is writing a job description based on a competency-based job analysis?
A) What are the typical duties associated with this job?
B) What are the working conditions and safety issues related to this job?
C) What opportunities for advancement are available to an employee in this job?
D) What should the employee be able to do in order to competently perform this job?
E) What machines or equipment is the job holder responsible for operating on a daily basis?
Answer: D

71) Which of the following best supports the argument that jobs should be described in terms of competencies rather than duties?
A) New employees in high-performance work systems receive extensive job skills training for their specific positions.
B) Managers in global firms are empowered to implement job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment in order to maximize productivity.
C) In high-performance work systems, employees serve as team members rotating among various jobs.
D) Globalization and telecommuting require workers to be able to self-manage and perform duties without close supervision.
Answer: C

72) In an effective talent management system, an employee’s performance appraisal would initiate training and development opportunities.
Answer: TRUE

73) The information gathered during a job analysis is primarily used to ensure that firms are in compliance with the EEO, OSHA, and all state governments.
Answer: FALSE

74) Organization charts show the division of work throughout the organization, how a job relates to others, and where a job fits in the organization.
Answer: TRUE

75) A process chart provides relevant background information during the job analysis process by indicating job titles and lines of communication.
Answer: FALSE

76) After identifying a business process to redesign, the next step in business process reengineering is measuring the performance of the existing process.
Answer: TRUE

77) Conducting the job analysis is the sole responsibility of the HR specialist.
Answer: FALSE

78) Informal interviews provide quantitative job analysis information, which is why they are frequently used by managers who need to determine the relative worth of a job for pay purposes.
Answer: FALSE

79) The immediate supervisor of a group of workers being interviewed for job analysis purposes is not allowed to attend the session due to concerns about workers failing to provide honest responses to questions.
Answer: FALSE

80) Studies suggest that employees are more likely to describe their job duties in the form of simple task statements instead of as ability statements during job analysis interviews.
Answer: FALSE

81) Questionnaires developed for the purpose of job analysis are always structured in the form of checklists so that the information can easily be entered into a database.
Answer: FALSE

82) Observation as a job analysis data collection method is most appropriate for jobs that involve physical activities.
Answer: TRUE

83) Some employers collecting job analysis information provide employees with pocket dictating machines and pagers to record activities at random times of the work day.
Answer: TRUE

84) Quantitative approaches for collecting job analysis data are more appropriate than qualitative approaches when a manager seeks to compare jobs for pay purposes.
Answer: TRUE

85) The FLSA status section of a job description permits quick identification of a job as exempt or nonexempt from overtime and minimum wage provisions.
Answer: TRUE

86) Experts advise the inclusion of statements such as “performs other assignments as required” in all job descriptions to ensure the flexibility of the job’s duties and responsibilities.
Answer: FALSE

87) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that organizations have job descriptions that list the essential functions of all jobs.
Answer: FALSE

88) O*NET has become an increasingly popular Web tool for creating and distributing position analysis questionnaires to employees who are located throughout the world.
Answer: FALSE

89) The statistical analysis method for developing job specifications is more defensible than the judgmental approach because equal rights legislation forbids using traits that a firm cannot prove distinguish between high and low job performers.
Answer: TRUE

90) A conventional job description provides managers with a more comprehensive picture of worker activities than a task statement matrix, which fails to address how and why workers perform specific job activities.
Answer: FALSE

91) Job enlargement refers to redesigning jobs in a way that increases responsibility and achievement.
Answer: FALSE

92) In reengineered business processes, workers tend to become collectively responsible for overall results rather than individually responsible for just their own tasks.
Answer: TRUE

93) Many job analysts and employers assert that in today’s work environment, job descriptions based on lists of job-specific duties inhibit the worker flexibility that companies need.
Answer: TRUE

94) Competencies are observable and measurable behaviors, and organizations are required to define competencies based on quantifiable standards developed by the Department of Labor.
Answer: FALSE

95) Competency-based job analysis is more worker-focused than traditional job analysis.
Answer: TRUE

96) Competency-based job analysis focuses on the knowledge, skills, and behavior of a worker rather than the tasks associated with a particular job.
Answer: TRUE

97) British Petroleum implemented a competency-based skills matrix for its employees. As a result, employee training, appraisals, and rewards relate to the skills and competencies a worker needs to accomplish the goals of the firm.
Answer: TRUE

98) ABC Widgets, Inc. wants to develop a high-performance work system, so its HR department should most likely develop traditional job descriptions rather than competency-based job descriptions.
Answer: FALSE

99) Writing a competencies-based job description typically involves compiling a list of job duties.
Answer: FALSE

100) Effective talent management focuses on developing employee competencies that align with strategic goals.
Answer: TRUE

101) How does job analysis support human resource management activities? Briefly describe one of the methods commonly used for gathering job analysis data.
Answer: Job analysis provides information for recruitment and selection by laying out what the job entails and what human characteristics are required to perform these activities. This information helps management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire. Job analysis information is also crucial for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate compensation. A performance appraisal compares each employee’s actual performance with his or her performance standards. Managers use job analysis to determine the job’s specific activities and performance standards.

102) What are the steps involved in the job analysis process? Briefly discuss the methods available for collecting job analysis information.
Answer: There are six steps in doing a job analysis. Step 1 is to decide how one will use the information. Step 2 is to review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions. Step 3 is to select representative positions. Step 4 is to analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. Step 5 is to verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. Step 6 is to develop a job description and job specification.

103) What time-saving options are available to a busy manager who needs to conduct a job analysis and write job descriptions? Explain your answer in a brief essay.
Answer: Job analysis can be a time-consuming process. Managers can save time by holding group interviews with groups of employees who have the same job. Managers use group interviews when a large number of employees are performing similar or identical work, since this can be a quick and inexpensive way to gather information. Busy managers often turn to the Internet for help writing job descriptions because the process can save a great amount of time. Sites like O*NET and provide managers with important characteristics of various occupations, as well as the experience, education, and knowledge needed to do each job well.

104) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using interviews to collect job analysis data?
Answer: Interviews are a relatively simple and quick way to collect data. Skilled interviewers can gather information that might otherwise go undiscovered. Some activities might occur only occasionally or be more informal in nature. Interviews can discover these types of activities. The interview also offers an opportunity to explain the need for a job analysis. The biggest drawback is the chance for information to be distorted either to outright falsification or honest misunderstanding.

105) How has modern technology, such as the Internet, changed job analysis methods? How has the Internet improved the ability of managers to write job descriptions?
Answer: The human resource department can distribute standardized job analysis questionnaires to geographically disbursed employees via their company intranets, with instructions to complete the forms and return them by a particular date.

106) In a brief essay, compare and contrast job descriptions and job specifications.
Answer: The primary function of a job analysis is to develop job specifications and job descriptions. A job description is a written statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are. You use this information to write a job specification; this lists the knowledge, abilities, and skills required to perform the job satisfactorily. There is no standard format for writing a job description.

107) How does the ADA affect hiring practices? How does an HR manager determine whether or not a job description complies with the ADA?
Answer: Congress enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to reduce or eliminate serious problems of discrimination against disabled individuals. Under the ADA, the individual must have the requisite skills, educational background, and experience to perform the job’s essential functions. A job function is essential when it is the reason the position exists or when the function is so specialized that the firm hired the person doing the job for his or her expertise or ability to perform that particular function. If the disabled individual can’t perform the job as currently structured, the employer is required to make a “reasonable accommodation,” unless doing so would present an “undue hardship.” The ADA does not require job descriptions, but it’s probably advisable to have them. Virtually all ADA legal actions will revolve around the question, “What are the essential functions of the job?” Without a job description that lists such functions, it will be hard to convince a court that the functions are essential to the job.

108) A human resource manager needs to develop job specifications for a new position at her firm. She can either base the job specifications on statistical analysis or on common sense. Briefly describe each method, and recommend which method the HR manager should use.
Answer: Most job specifications come from the educated guesses of people like supervisors and human resource managers. The basic procedure here is to ask, “What does it take in terms of education, intelligence, training, and the like to do this job well?” There are several ways to get these “educated guesses.” You could simply review the job’s duties, and deduce from those what human traits and skills the job requires. You can also choose them from the competencies listed in Web-based job descriptions. In any case, use common sense when compiling your list. Don’t ignore the behaviors that may apply to almost any job but that might not normally surface through a job analysis. Industriousness is an example. Who wants an employee who doesn’t work hard?

109) What is the difference between job enlargement, job rotation, and job enrichment?
Answer: Job enlargement means assigning workers additional same-level activities. Thus, the worker who previously only bolted the seat to the legs might attach the back as well. Job rotation means systematically moving workers from one job to another. Psychologist Frederick Herzberg argued that the best way to motivate workers is through job enrichment. Job enrichment means redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition. It does this by empowering the worker—for instance, by giving the worker the skills and authority to inspect the work, instead of having supervisors do that. Herzberg said empowered employees would do their jobs well because they wanted to, and quality and productivity would rise.

110) What is a competency-based job analysis? Why should firms consider describing jobs in terms of competencies instead of duties?
Answer: Job competencies are always observable and measurable behaviors. To determine what a job’s required competencies are, you should ask, “In order to perform this job competently, what should the employee be able to do?” We can say that competency-based job analysis means describing the job in terms of measurable, observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) that an employee doing that job must exhibit to do the job well.

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