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Human Resource Management
Q1. Explain the objectives and methods of Training.
Objectives of Training
- Acquiring Intellectual / job-related Knowledge: An electrical engineer may need more knowledge than he now possesses about circuit design. A new employee may require knowledge about company policies. A shop floor employee may need to be made aware of information about the new performance appraisal or compensation policy or changes to it.
- Acquiring Manual Skills: The acquisition of a manual skill requires practice or experience along with feedback. While learning can happen in a isolated self-learning mode, it can be significantly speeded up by guidance and theoretical knowledge imparted by experts. The end objective remains that the employee be able to execute the skill effectively back on the job.
- Acquiring Managerial Skills: Much of a manager’s work is managing people and solving problems. These include organizing his own and his team member’s work activities, and planning for a wide range of other decision-making responsibilities.
Methods of Training
- Demonstration of Value: Complete demonstration of job requirements enables the trainee to grasp the meaning of ideas, concepts, or procedures visually. Such a method can be used effectively as an aid to overcome the “breakdown of communication”.
- Engaging trainee Interest: One of the important factors to be kept in mind in choosing a method is its ability to hold and arouse the interest of the trainee in the learning situation. A trainee has to consider alternative methods of presenting training material to participants in order to stimulate their interest and facilitate retention of the matter.
- Appeal to multiple senses: From the trainer’s point of view, it would be beneficial to utilize as many of the trainer’s senses as possible, in order to improve retention of learning. The trainer has to understand and identify the problem area i.e., he has to examine whether there is a problem with the manner in which the task is done.
Secondly, selecting the appropriate method would be dependent on the level of the trainee in an organization’s hierarchy. Finally, before selecting a training method, the trainer should keep in mind about cost effectiveness.
- On-the-job training: Since most jobs in an organization can be learned in a relatively short period of time, this method is the most widely used. It has the advantage of strongly motivating the trainee to learn since it is located in the artificial situation of a classroom.
Q2. Discuss the elements of a Career Planning Programme. Explain some of the benefits of a Career Planning program to an organization
Elements of a Career Planning Programme
- Individual Assessments
Individual assessment of abilities, interests, career needs, and goals is basically a process of self-exploration and analysis. Individuals are frequently guided by self-assessment exercises. The self-assessment process is basically viewed as an individual responsibility; however, organizations can aid in this process by providing the employee with materials and opportunities for self-exploration and analysis.
- Organizational Assessments
A key issue in career counselling sessions is whether an employee’s goals are realistic in terms of organizational possibilities and organizational assessments of employee abilities and potential. Accurate assessments of employee abilities and potential are important to both the organization and the individual.
- Career Information within an Organization
Before realistic goals can be set, the employee needs information about career options and opportunities. This includes information about possible career directions; possible paths of career advancement; and specific job vacancies. In organizations with informal career planning programs, employees learn about career options and opportunities from their supervisors within the context of developmental performance appraisal interviews.
- Career Counseling
It is in counselling sessions, typically with supervisors and managers in developmental performance appraisal interviews, that most employees explore career goals and opportunities in the organization.
Benefits of a Career Planning Programme
- Career planning helps the indiviual have the knowledge of various career opportunities, his priorities etc.
- It helps him select the career which is suitable to his life style, preference, family environment, the scope for self-development etc.
- It helps the organisation identify talented employees who can be promoted.
- Internal promotions, upgradation and transfers motivate the employees, boost their morale and also result in increased job satisfaction.
- Each employee will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to another organisation. This would lower employee turnover.
- It improves employee’s performance on the job by tapping their potential abilities and stimulating their personal growth.
- Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense of belongingness and loyalty to the organisation.
- Being an intregal part of the manpower planning and corporate planning, career planning contributes towards indiviual development and organisational development and effective achievement of corporate goals.
- An organisation with well-designed career plans is able to have a better image in the employment market, and it will attract and retain competent people.
Q3. Explain the process of Job Analysis. Discuss the methods of Job Analysis
Definition of Job Analysis
Job analysis indicates the specific duties to be performed by the employee and the circumstances under which these duties are to be performed. A job description is a written record of the duties, responsibilities and conditions of the job. The job description provides ‘ the essential information on which each job is evaluated. The resulting measures of values are then translated into wage and salary rates.
“Job analysis is the process of getting information about jobs; specifically, what the employee does; how he gets it done; why he does it; skill, education and training required; relationships to other jobs; physical demands and environmental conditions”.
Methods of Job Analysis
- Grade Description Method: This method depends upon the recognition that there are differences in the levels of duties, responsibilities and skills required for the performance of different jobs. These differences, once recognized, can be expressed as grades or levels. These grades can then be defined and jobs classified by the selection of a particular grade or each job to correspond to its worth.
- Point Method: Jobs show characteristics which are common to all or most. These characteristics, called factors, generally fall under the four headings- skill, effort, responsibility and conditions. To each factor is attached a number of points, the number varying according to the ‘degree’ of the factor involved.
- Factor-Comparison Method: This is associated with the name of E. J. Benge. Each factor (as in the point method) is ascribed a money value. Key jobs, representing the various levels or grades are ranked factor by factor and upon this ranking, a scale of pay/money value is prepared. The sum of the values for each factor is taken to be the money value of the job.
- Time-Span Method: It was propounded by Professor Jaques that the higher in the hierarchy of organizational structure of jobs the longer the period before the results of a decision is scrutinized for adequacy. An analysis of time-spans for different jobs yields a scale of pay felt to be fair.
- Guide-Chart Profile Method: This is associated with the name of Dr E.N.Hay. Three factors, know-how (education/experience), problem-solving, and accountability (responsibility) are each divided into eight degrees or levels and these, qualified by a second, or ‘breadth’ dimension, each factor and breadth being concerned with some aspect of decision-making.
Q4. Discuss the objectives of Discipline. Explain the Action –penalties of Discipline
Q5. Suppose you have joined as an HR and you have been assigned a task to carry out the grievance handling procedure in your organization. What according to you are the causes of Grievance? Describe in detail the Grievance handling procedure.
Q6. Write a short note on the following:
- Index /Trend Analysis
- Delphi Technique
Q7. The success of HR plans depends on the accuracy of HR forecasts. What is the meaning of this HR forecasting? Describe the following HR forecasting techniques: (a) Index/ Trend analysis and (b) Expert forecasting
Q8. Write a brief note on: (i) Selection test and (ii) Interviews
Q9. What do you mean by management development? What are its objectives and methods?
Q10. Suppose you have joined as HR executive in a software company. The first task you have been assigned is to work on Career planning. What are the various career programs will you consider?
Q11. Define the performance review. What are the types of appraisal methods? Describe the ways to evaluate an employee individually.
Q12. Many organisations maintain a disciplinary policy or system to regulate the behaviour of the employees and deal with acts of indiscipline. Describe such various disciplinary action – penalties in business organisations.
Q13. Explain the scope and functions of Human Resource Management (HRM).
Q14. Define wage and salary. What are the factors for effective wage administration?
Q15. What are the different types of on-the-job and off-the-job training?
Q16. What is the need for performance reviews?
What are the benefits of carrying out performance appraisal in organisations?
Q17. Explain the impact of globalisation on HRM.
Q18. Ms Swapna is the HR Manager of ABC Pvt Ltd. She wants to ensure that employee discipline is well maintained. What are the important principles that have to be observed in the maintenance of discipline?
Q19. Define Human resource planning (HRP). Explain the objectives and process of HRP.
Q20. What are the factors affecting recruitment? What are the sources of recruitment?
Q21. What are the main objectives of training? Explain on-the-job and off the job training.
Q22. Define performance management. Write a brief note on 360 degree appraisal.
Q23. What is meant by job analysis? Explain its purpose and methods.
Q24. What are the benefits and objectives of employee welfare measures?
Q25. What do you mean by Human Resource Management? Describe the functions of Human Resource Management.
Q26. What do you mean by HRIS? Explain the components of HRIS. Describe the different applications of HRIS in Human Resource Management.
Q27. “Discipline in the broad sense means the orderliness-the opposite of confusion.” What do you mean by Discipline? Explain the basic guidelines of a Disciplinary policy.
Q28. Write short notes on the following:
a) Competency Mapping
b) Flexi Time
Q29. Discuss the impact of globalization on HR.
Q30. Define Management Development. Discuss the Off the job development methods
Q31. Discuss the concept of HRIS. Explain the applications of HRIS in Human Resource Management.
Q32. Discuss the basic guidelines of a Disciplinary policy
Q33. Write short notes on the following:
- a) Employee Engagement
- b) Talent Management
Q34. Write short notes on: (i) Selection test and (ii) Interviews
Q35. Many organizations maintain a disciplinary policy or system to regulate the behaviour of the employees and deal with acts of indiscipline. Describe such various disciplinary action–penalties in business organizations.
Q36. Explain the functions of Human Resource Management
Q37. Write short notes on the following:
- a) Job Enlargement
- b) Job Enrichment