# MCQ on Cryptography and Network Security with Answers – Set-I

Are you a student preparing for an upcoming exam on Cryptography and Network Security? Do you find multiple-choice questions (MCQ) to be an effective study tool in reinforcing your understanding of these complex subjects? If so, then you have arrived at the perfect destination!

In this article, we present a comprehensive set of MCQs on Cryptography and Network Security with answers, designed specifically to help students like you excel in your exams. Whether you are a beginner seeking foundational knowledge or an advanced learner aiming for mastery, this set of MCQs will provide valuable insights and allow you to gauge your understanding of these vital topics.

So let’s dive right in and unlock the secrets of Cryptography and Network Security through this engaging MCQ series!

## Cryptography and Network Security MCQ Set-I

1. Any action that compromises the security of information owned by an organization is called ___.
Ans: Security attack

2. ___ is a weakness in the security system.
Ans: Vulnerability

3. When one entity pretends to be a different entity, we call it ___.

4. ___ means that assets can be modified only by authorized parties or only in authorized ways.
Ans: Integrity

5. Confidentiality can be achieved with ___.
Ans: Encryption

6. A control is an action, device, procedure, or technique that removes or reduces ___.
Ans: Vulnerability

7. Cryptography is the art of ___.
Ans: secret writing

8. The encrypted text is also called ___.
Ans: Ciphertext

9. Ciphertext depends on the original plaintext message, the algorithm, and the ___.
Ans: key-value

10. ___ is a rearrangement of the characters of the plaintext into columns.
Ans: columnar transposition

11. Because a transposition is a rearrangement of the symbols of a message, it is also known as ___.
Ans: permutation

12. DES stands for ___.
Ans: Data Encryption Standard.

13. The size of the enciphered text should be no larger than the text of the original message. True / False
Ans: True.

14. Symmetric algorithms use ___ key(s).
Ans: one.

15. ___ enables such an analyst to infer data that should be kept confidential in the database.
Ans: Linear programming.

16. ___ is a person who attempts to break a cypher text message to obtain the original plaintext message.
Ans: Cryptanalyst

17. The public key algorithm uses ___.
Ans: Pair of keys (two keys).

18. The columnar transposition and other transpositions are examples of ___.
Ans: Block cyphers.

19. The data encryption algorithm developed by IBM for NBS was based on ___.
Ans: Lucifer

20. DES encrypting the plaintext as blocks of ___ bits.
Ans: 64

21. The DES algorithm is fixed for a ___ bit key.
Ans: 56

22. Triple-DES procedure is C = E (k1, D (k2, E (k1,m))). True /False
Ans: True

23. The ___ is likely to be the commercial-grade symmetric algorithm of choice for years, if not decades.
Ans: AES

24. AES is a ___ algorithm.
Ans: symmetric key encryption

25. Asymmetric or public-key encryption systems use two keys, ___, and ___.
Ans: A public key, a private key

26. ___ can be used to distribute other keys.
Ans: Public key

27. Diffie-Hellman Scheme is based on ___.
Ans: Discrete logarithm problem

28. Because the users share a common secret key S, the Diffie-Hellman scheme is an example of an asymmetric key exchange protocol. True/False
Ans: True

29. ___ gives us a reliable means to prove the origin of data or code.
Ans: Digital signatures

30. ___ are ideally suited to digital signatures.
Ans: Public key encryption systems

31. A digital signature must meet two primary conditions ___ and ___.
Ans: Unforgeable, authentic

32. Flaws are first divided into ___ and ___ flaws.

33. The inadvertent flaws fall into ___ categories
Ans: Six

34. ___ runs under the user’s authority.
Ans: Malicious code

35. Virus attaches itself to the program and propagates copies of it to other programs. True/ False
Ans: True

36. Controls, encouraged by managers and administrators, are called ___.

37. ___ is often used as a safe way for general users to access sensitive data.
Ans: Trusted software.

38. ___ is an undocumented entry point to a module.
Ans: Trapdoor

39. ___ is a feature in a program by which someone can access the program other than by the obvious, direct call, perhaps with special privileges.
Ans: Backdoor

40. In ___ separation, processes conceal their data and computations in such a way that they are unintelligible to outside processes.
Ans: Cryptographic

41. Separation in an operating system cannot occur in several ways.
Ans: False

42. The most obvious problem of ___ is preventing one program from affecting the memory of other programs.
Ans: Multiprogramming

43. A key advantage of the group protection approach is its ease of implementation. True/False
Ans: True

44. ___ are mutually agreed-upon code words, assumed to be known only to the user and the system.

45. A key advantage of the group protection approach is its ___.
Ans: Ease of implementation

46. In ___, each piece of information is ranked at a particular sensitivity level, such as unclassified, restricted, confidential, secret, or top secret.
Ans: Military security.

47. The military security model is representative of a more general scheme, called a ___.
Ans: Lattice

48. Unlike regular operating systems, trusted systems incorporate technology to address both ___ and ___
Ans: Features, assurance

49. Memory protection is usually performed by hardware mechanisms, such as ___ or ___.
Ans: paging, segmentation

50. ___ is a characteristic that often grows over time, in accordance with evidence and experience.
Ans: Trust

51. A single computing system in a network is often called ___ and its processor (computer) is called ___.
Ans: A node, a host

52. The way a network is configured, in terms of nodes and connections, is called the network firewall. True/False
Ans: False

53. To maintain or improve reliability and performance, routings between two endpoints are ___.
Ans: Dynamic

54. Impersonation is a more significant threat in a wide area network than in a local one. True/ False
Ans: True

55. ___ can be used to implement a VPN.
Ans: Firewalls

56. ___ is another way to segment the network.
Ans: Separate access

57. ___ is a process created to enable users to implement public-key cryptography.
Ans: PKI

58. You can protect the IP datagrams by using one of the IPSec protocol elements, the ___ or the ___.

59. The modes of operation of IPSec are ___ and ___.
Ans: Tunnel mode and Transport mode.

60. The security association that applies to a given IPSec header is determined by the packets ___ and the ___ in the packet header.
Ans: Destination IP address, Security parameter index (SPI).

61. The management of SAs can be either manual or through an Internet standard called___.
Ans: Key management protocol

62. ESP seeks to provide ___ and ___ by encrypting data to be protected and placing the encrypted data in the data portion of the IP ESP.
Ans: Confidentiality and Integrity

63. IKE is considered a hybrid protocol because it combines (and supplements) the functions of three other protocols ___ and ___.
Ans: ISAKMP, OAKLEY, and SKEME

64. ___ is a generic protocol that supports many different key exchange methods.
Ans: ISAKMP

65. The ___ has established a service for assessing the security of commercial websites.
Ans: National Computer Security Association (NCSA)

66. On the upper layer, a protocol for initial authentication and transfer of encryption keys is called ___.
Ans: SSL Handshake Protocol

67. The combination of key exchange, hash, and encryption algorithm for each SSL session is defined as ___.
Ans: Cipher suite

68. SSL uses the ___ for reporting errors and abnormal conditions.

69. A ___ is an association between a client and a server.
Ans: Session

70. In SET ___ is used to link two messages that are intended for two different recipients.
Ans: Dual Signature.

71. ___ is an open encryption and security specification designed to protect credit card transactions on the Internet.
Ans: Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)

72. Confidentiality and content forgery are often handled by___.
Ans: Encryption

73. Symmetric encryption can protect against forgery by a recipient. True/False
Ans: False

74. Encrypted e-mail messages always carry a digital signature, so the ___ and ___ of the sender are assured.
Ans: Authenticity, non-repudiability

75. DES stands for ___.
Ans: Data Encryption Standard

76. ___ cannot protect against forgery by a recipient, since both sender and recipient share a common key.
Ans: Symmetric encryption

77. The principal difference between S/MIME and PGP is ___.
Ans: Method of key exchange

78. PGP stands for ___.
Ans: Pretty Good Privacy

79. Encrypted e-mail messages always carry a ___, so the authenticity and non-reputability of the sender are assured.
Ans: Digital signature

80. ___ is a device that filters all traffic between a protected or “inside” network and a less trustworthy or “outside” network.
Ans: Firewall

81. A packet filtering gateway controls access to packets based on packet address (source or destination) or ___.
Ans: Specific transport protocol type

82. An application proxy gateway is also called ___.
Ans: Bastion host

83. ___ maintains state information from one packet to another in the input stream.
Ans: Stateful inspection firewall

84. The primary disadvantage of packet filtering routers is a combination of ___ and ___.
Ans: Simplicity, complexity

85. ___ identifies and organizes the security activities for a computing system.
Ans: Security plan

86. ___ is the difference in risk exposure divided by the cost of reducing the risk.
Ans: Risk leverage

87. A security policy should not be comprehensive. True/False
Ans: False

88. Security policy must be realistic. True/False
Ans: True

89. ___ and ___ address external security threats.
Ans: Redundancy, physical controls

90. Risk assessment is a technique supporting ___.
Ans: Security planning

91. ___ is a process that drives the rest of the security administration.
Ans: Security planning

#### Conclusion

Participating in the MCQ on Cryptography and Network Security with Answers – Set-I has provided valuable insights into the complex world of cybersecurity. By testing your knowledge and understanding of the subject, you have gained a deeper appreciation for the importance of cryptography and network security in today’s digital age.

Remember to continue expanding your knowledge in this field as technology advances and threats evolve. Share this article on social media to encourage others to test their knowledge and promote awareness about the crucial role of cryptography and network security in protecting our online information. Stay informed, stay secure!

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