Explain the composition of the atmosphere Ι Atmosphere components

Explain the composition of the atmosphere Ι Describe the Atmosphere components Ι Gases in the atmosphere and their percentages.

There are following composition of atmosphere listed below:

  • Nitrogen (N2): Nitrogen constitutes 78 per cent of Earth’s atmosphere and is a constituent of all living tissues.
  • Oxygen (O2): Oxygen constitutes most of the mass of living organisms because water is their major constituent.
  • Argon (Ar): Argon is produced industrially by the fractional distillation of liquid air.
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2): The environmental effects of carbon dioxide are of significant interest.
  • Neon (Ne): Neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in either low-voltage neon glow lamps or in high-voltage discharge tubes or neon advertising signs.
  • Helium (He): On Earth helium is thus relatively rare—0.00052% by volume in the atmosphere.
  • Methane (CH4): Methane is a relatively potent greenhouse gas. The concentration of methane in the Earth’s atmosphere in 1998, expressed as a mole fraction, was 1745 nmol/mol (parts per billion, ppb), up from 700 nmol/mol in 1750.
  • Krypton (Kr): Krypton, like the other noble gases, can be used in lighting and photography.
  • Hydrogen (H2): Hydrogen gas was first artificially produced in the early 16th century, via the mixing of metals with strong acids.
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide gives rise to NO (nitric oxide) on reaction with oxygen atoms and this NO, in turn, reacts with ozone.
  • Carbon monoxide (CO): Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds; it forms when there is not enough oxygen to produce carbon dioxides (CO2), such as when operating a stove or an internal combustion engine in an enclosed space.
  • Xenon (Xe): Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps and as a general anaesthetic. The first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer molecule (Xe2) as its lasing medium, and the earliest laser designs used xenon flash lamps as pumps.
  • Ozone (O3): Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation. 
  • Nitrogen dioxide (NO2): Nitrogen dioxide is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of nitric acid, millions of tons of which are produced each year.
  • Iodine (I2): Iodine is found on Earth mainly as the highly water-soluble iodide ion, I, which concentrates in oceans and brine pools.
  • Ammonia (NH3): Ammonia, as used commercially, is often called anhydrous ammonia.

You may also like to read about Hydrological cycle and its components


We have explored the fascinating composition of the atmosphere that surrounds us. We have learned about the different gases and particles that make up this delicate balance, and how they interact with each other to create our climate and weather patterns.

Understanding the atmosphere is crucial for predicting and adapting to changes in our environment. Let’s continue to learn about our world and work towards preserving it for future generations.

Thank you for taking the time to read this article, and we hope you found it informative and engaging. Remember to always look up at the sky and appreciate the beauty of nature around us.

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